are the major acoustic features of vowels (10).
The author offers exercises to check tuning and tone color of formants
, and others to assist in finding correct tongue position for specific vowels.
Therefore, there is the need to identify the fundamental frequency and the intensity, the energy spectrum, LPC (Linear Predicting Code), the formants
, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), the signal spectrogram, time percentage of the presence of the voice inside the recording and the gender, required in the analysis of the behavior of the voice, which give the proper characteristics of each speaker.
"--the various actors and contexts--at work in
The principal acoustic characteristics used to describe vowels are their formants
. The first two formants
of a vowel, F1 and F2, are spectral values that allow categorization of the phoneme.
The high-low and front-back distinctions are represented by the first and second formants
on the spectrogram (Olive Greenwood and Coleman 1993).
He explains harmonics, theories of vocal resonance, the basics of formants
, harmonic/formant interactions, female/treble voice resonance strategies, male passaggio training, perceptions of when a voice turns over, the pedagogic implications of vocal tract acoustics, pedagogic strategies that encourage stability and a convergent resonator, the acoustics of belting, terminology, and vocal explorations and exercises for vowel turning and first formant/first harmonic (F1/H1) tracking, as well as supplemental strategies.
Additional material on formants
and harmonic formants
interactions is concisely presented, along with treble voice resonance strategies and male passagio training.
WAVESURFER to manually calculate the formants
. Using WAVESURFER we can easily guess the formants
However, within the standard features the formants
convey information about the speaker's vocal tract which differs not only for different speakers but it changes its shape for the same speaker in different emotional state.