The Owenites in England, and the Fourierists
in France, respectively, oppose the Chartists and the Reformistes.
At a later period he had spent some months in a community of Fourierists
. Still more recently he had been a public lecturer on Mesmerism, for which science (as he assured Phoebe, and, indeed, satisfactorily proved, by putting Chanticleer, who happened to be scratching near by, to sleep) he had very remarkable endowments.
As regards the history of socialism (chapters I & II), the little-known roots of the term itself belong to "Catholic theologians" of the 18 th century, who "referred to a tendency in the works of Grotius and Pufendorf" to assume that "the legal order of society should be founded on the human need for 'sociality' rather than divine revelation." (6) Better known is the use of this term by 19th-century Owenites "in England and the Fourierists
in France", who were horrified by "the misery of the working masses" under the prevailing "economic sphere", which had clearly betrayed the melioristic aspirations of "the French Revolution" (7-9).
By Socialists, in 1847, were understood, on the one hand the adherents of the various Utopian systems: Owenites in England, Fourierists
in France, both of them already reduced to the position of mere sects, and gradually dying out; on the other hand, the most multifarious social quacks who, by all manner of tinkering, professed to redress, without any danger to capital and profit, all sorts of social grievances, in both cases men outside the working-class movement, and looking rather to the "educated" classes for support.
JENNINGS BEGINS his history of five utopian movements--the Shakers, the Owenites, the Fourierists
, the Icarians, and Oneida--from a position of sympathy.
Shakers, Owenites, Fourierists
, Icarians, and Oneida Perfectionists all "labored under the very specific belief that small communistic societies could trigger a new and perfected existence across the entire globe" (11).
As a "committed Fourierist
" through the influence of Albert Brisbane, Greeley held with his fellow associationists "that the interests of labor, capital and talent could be reconciled by fixing the rewards of work according to a more egalitarian formula" (475), but the Fourierists
offered an additional hope: that alienated work would disappear entirely, as the dichotomy between mental and manual labor could be dissolved and people would only engage in work that they really loved to do.
Hammond, La Reunion: A French Settlement in Texas (Dallas, TX: Royal Publishing Company, 1958), 52; Victor Considerant, European Colonization in Texas: An Address to the American People (New York: Barker, Godwin, 1855), 58-60; James Pratt "Jeudi, 22 Decembre 1854: Les premiers fourieristes
foulent le sol du Texas," [Thursday, December 22, 1854: The First Fourierists
Tread the Soil of Texas], Cahiers Charles Fourier [Notebooks of Charles Fourier] 4 (1993):28-39; Godin, "Documents pour un biografie complete" [Documents for a Complete Biography], Le Devoir [The Duty] 25 (1901): 11-18; Santerre, White Cliffs of Dallas, 32; Lutz, "Almost Utopia," 324; Beecher, Victor Considerant and the Rise and Fall of French Romatic Socialism, 320-21.
Influenced by Saint-Simonians and Fourierists
, she saw herself as a messiah or prophet and asserts this idea repeatedly in her letters: "Que les disciples du Christ, de Saint-Simon, de Fourier, de Flora Tristan (quand elle en aura--ce qui sera avant 10 ans), que les disciples posent, c'est un fait que je ne nie pas et qui est meme providentiel" (124).
1-31, 89-95; and (on line) Kathryn Tomasek and Adam Tuchinsky, "'Spirits Bound to the Same Haven': American Fourierists
, Marriage, and the Political Economy of Love" <www.iisg.hl/nwomhist/tomasek.doc>.
Indeed, many observers dubbed their members "Four-year-ites" rather than Fourierists
. As he traced each individual tragedy, Noyes's approach to each community failure was the same: he sought to identify the specific reasons for the collapse, then to discern more general patterns, and finally to draw conclusions that might apply to his own community-building efforts.
Hartmut Stenzel sees Baudelaire as being allied with Fourierists