Arguably the constitution of the Fifth Republic across the Channel may in the longer term seem to have been beneficial with the President now having executive powers more like a US President than the milquetoast presidents Auriol and Coty of the so called Fourth Republic
but that is another story.
Of the four Convention Peoples Party (CPP) members of parliament (MPs) who entered the House of Parliament since the Fourth Republic
, three made it because of the full support they had from the NPP, who even had to drop their parliamentary candidates and campaigned and voted for the CPP.
The principle dovetailed into the Fourth Republic
, with the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) entrenching it in its system such that power has oscillated between the North and the South since May 29, 1999 when Chief Olusegun Obasanjo emerged as the first civilian president and beneficiary of power rotation between the North and the South after a prolonged military interregnum in the country.
In an analysis of Nigeria's Fourth Republic
elections, Omotola  points to the weak institutionalization of the primary agencies of electoral administration in Nigeria, namely the political party system and the electoral commission whose nomenclature purports its independence but is merely an organ of the state.
The investment decision of Gold Fields to take over management and acquire assets of the State Gold Mining Company (Tarkwa Gold Mine) in 1993 marked the beginning of private sector participation in Ghana's mining sector under the Fourth Republic
. As part of its long-term vision, Gold Fields immediately started exploration and commissioned feasibility studies into surface mining, as it was then clear that Tarkwa's underground potential was not economically viable.
These changes mirrored developments in France, where the army played a key role in the return of De Gaulle after the collapse of the Fourth Republic
in 1958 (p.
(6) Coming after the equally middling performances of three prior presidents under Nigeria's latest experiment in democracy since 1999, known as the Fourth Republic
, (7) this disappointing result suggests a deeper problem: Nigeria's state-building ailment is a structural issue not amenable to managerial window-dressing.
A rebirth of democracy came with the Fourth Republic
beginning in 1999.
'Ang Lahing Pilipino, Dakila at Marangal' most dispassionately recounts the establishment of the Fourth Republic
under Marcos, stating it in just one sentence: 'Before he finished his second term as President, Marcos declared martial law on Sept.
Elections and Governance in Nigeria's Fourth Republic
In Europe, French politicians moved up the parliamentary ladder in the Fourth Republic
, and could aspire to climb to the presidency in the Fifth.