Dr Francois Duvalier
, the former president of Haiti, was better known by what name?
As president for life, Francois Duvalier
, a physician and believer in voodoo, ruled Haiti between 1957 and 1971 by creating a state terror-thanks to his own paramilitary security squad, the Tontons Macoutes, which he formed in1959.
In these chapters, Mills introduces readers to Haiti's brutal leader Francois Duvalier
who rose to power in 1957 and ruled until his death in 1971.
After Francois Duvalier
rose to power in 1957 many Haitians fled the country, instigating the predominantly elite emigration of the 1960s and soon followed by working-class emigration in the 1970s and 1980s.
Vivianne Gauthier, who has received many honors (Honor and Merit of the Choir of the Cathedral, August 2001; Honor and Merit of President Francois DUVALIER
for Culture, 1961;-Engraved table for the fight in the Development of Haitian Culture, 1996; Homage to the National Television of Haiti for Dance, December 23, 1997; Honorary Board of SOROPTIMIST International Club of Port-au-Prince awarded to Mrs.
After they achieved a certain level of power, you could never call Cuba's Fulgencio Batista, or Chile's Augusto Pinoche, or Haiti's Francois Duvalier
, or Nicaragua's Anastasio Somoza a dictator.
Out of these tensions emerged Francois Duvalier
, champion of the noiriste movement, who consolidated his power with terror and passed his dictatorship to his son Jean-Claude; the origins and manifestations of this difficult period, as well as the downfall of the Duvalier dynasty, are discussed by Patrick Bellegarde-Smith.
In 1971, Francois Duvalier
suddenly died of an illness and named his son to succeed him.
During 1957-86, the authoritarian rule of Francois Duvalier
and his son, Jean-Claude, reinforced a system of corruption and intimidation that has become entrenched in subsequent Haitian political systems.
In conclusion, in light of the various radical tendencies that suffused the Haitian political class, it is dictatorship that left its hideous marks, and unfortunately various leaders of the so-called "left", Francois Duvalier
included, consistently pushed the populace into an "enduring fight for the realization of true democracy in Haiti," one that is "rooted in the indefatigable efforts of the men and women who refused to accept the legacies of foreign occupation" (Smith: 195).