In effect then the local outcomes of what appear to be large-scale national shifts associated with the images of sunbelt and frostbelt
may be tempered not only be the inertia of significant economic activity in cold region cities, but also reinforced by expansion in jobs and population within some parts(or on the fringe of) their metropolitan areas.
Yet, because Rustbelt states are part of the Frostbelt
, changing demand for warmer climates may underlie the result.
Bad times are the mother of necessity, driving Frostbelt
regions to consider bold new steps, notes Mark Muro of the Brookings institution's Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.
Because of this migration of the creative class, a new social and economic geography is emerging in America, one that does not correspond to old categories like East Coast versus West Coast or Sunbelt versus Frostbelt
. Rather, it is more like the class divisions that have increasingly separated Americans by income and neighborhood, extended into the realm of city and region.
Regional competition, especially between the Frostbelt
and Sunbelt areas of the nation, took on new forms.
Pierce & Jerry Hagstrom, Unions, Frostbelt
Seek More Control Over Pension Fund Investments, NAT'L.
At first glance, this migration might be thought of as an extension of the long-term redistribution of population from the Frostbelt
(Northeast and Midwest regions) to the Sunbelt (South and West regions).
Three shifts, which have determined the distribution of jobs and people, have occurred since the end of World War II: 1) the shift from the frostbelt
to the sunbelt; 2) the movement from central cities to suburbs; and 3) "the relatively faster growth of jobs and people in small and less dense metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs)." This last shift is what Carlino calls "deconcentration," and he has found that "jobs have grown less rapidly in MSAs where employment is dense ...
Automation: The ITI Status Report on Great Lakes Manufacturing, Industrial Technology Institute, Ann Arbor, MI.
Many researchers explore the thesis that sunbelt and frostbelt
states exhibit different growth paths, primarily because of differences in energy and labor costs; these include Plaut and Pluta  and Wasylenko and McGuire .
The Vernon study of the economic future of the New York region, published in 1959 and 1960, projected more of the same through 1985, but with net growth in New York City from very strong office activities and a large consumer-sector multiplier and considerable growth in the rest of the region.(3) During the 1960s, that is exactly what happened: the decline in goods handling within the city continued apace; the securities industry grew rapidly, as did most producer services; both residential and office construction were strong; and public expenditure for capital projects, current operations, and transfer payments increased very rapidly indeed.(4) New York City, unlike nearly all other large central cities in the Frostbelt
, had significant employment gains during the 1960s.
All through the 1980s, the city's per-capita income grew slower than most other Frostbelt