French rule increased opportunities to move to the northern pastures by those Fulbe
on the left bank of the river due to the pacification of the Kel Tamashek (Bonfiglioli 1988).
Anthropologists from Europe and the US consider anthropological studies of friendship and kinship, as well as the issues of gender and ethnicity; friendship among the Maasai of East Africa; friendship networks in southwestern Ethiopia and the role of gifts and activities; friendship and spiritual parenthood among the Moose and Fulbe
in Burkina Faso; labor migration and moral dimensions of interethnic friendships in Benin, West Africa; friendship and kinship among merchants and veterans in Mali; friendship in elite circles in Botswana; and negotiating friendship and kinship in the context of violence during the Tuareg upheavals in Mali from 1990 to 1996.
Hausa [Hawsa] Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger Fulbe
, Fulfulde (Pulaar) Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Cameroon Yoruba Benin, Niger, Nigeria Bambara/Jula Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali Senoufo Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali Ewe Benin, Ghana, Togo Gurmancema Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger Dagara Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana (Data adopted, with modifications, from Ouedraogo 2000:8) This is not an exhaustive list, but it exemplifies some languages that are used beyond their traditional geographical areas as mother tongues.
Eguchi P K, 1994, "Pastoralism in Fulbe
folktales" Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 34 461-471
Fulani (also known as Fulbe
or Peul) are nomadic pastoralists scattered around the entire region.
Ethnic groups include the Yoruba in the southeast (migrated from Nigeria in the 12th century); the Dendi in the north-central area (they came from Mali in the 16th century); the Bariba and the Fulbe
(Peul) in the northeast; the Betammaribe and the Somba in the Atacora Range; the Fon in the area around Abomey in the South Central and the Mina, Xueda, and Aja (who came from Togo) on the coast.
primarily on an ethno-regional base among Guinea's Peuhl (Fulbe
Bisa); colonisation between the 15th and 17th centuries, which is that of the Moose, Gulmanceba, Fulbe
, Yarse, Marka, Zara; and colonisation at the end of the 17th century, which is that of the Lobi, Dagara, Hausa, Dyula.
Like the Muslims of the Swahili Rim, those of West Africa cultivated classical Arabic but drew confidently upon the rich treasury of regional tongues like Mandingo, Fulbe
, and Hausa, transforming them into powerful socio-cultural mediums.
Identity in Community: Pulaaka Discourse in Northern Cameroon."
The Caliphate was still an ethnically heterogeneous polity in which being "Hausa" was not the critical variable which separated the talakawa from the emerging Fulbe
(Fulfulde speaking) aristocracy; nor does it follow that because Islam provided the ideological justification that united this vast empire, that it was conterminous with a "Hausa-Fulani" ethnic group prior to the British conquest at the turn of the century.