tourokurei [Imperial Orderfor Foreigners Registration], Imperial Order No 207 of 1947, online: <ja.wikisource.org>; Mitsuo Goto, "Nihonkokukenpou seiteishi niokeru Nihonkokumin to Gaikokujin
[Japanese Citizen and Foreigners during the History of the Enactment of the Constitution of Japan]", (2012) 45:3 Hikaku hougaku 1 at 7, 8, online: <www.waseda.jp/folaw/icl/assets/uploads/2014/05/A04408055-00 -045030001.pdf>.
In 1996, Kawasaki City, which has been well known for a large number of both groups, organized the Council on the Representation of Foreign Residents (gaikokujin
shimin daihyosha kaigi) in order to incorporate the voice of foreign residents in local policymaking (Han 2004; Satake 2011a).
(105) Some minority children did not consider themselves "foreign" until they were required to register as gaikokujin
with the ward office at the age of fourteen (later sixteen), to give their fingerprints like potential criminal suspects, and to carry their registry cards on their person at all times--thus being socially "othered" from their peers at a delicate age.
17: Jinbungaku (Estrangeiros contratados Vol.
<< Nihon ni okeru Gaikokujin
no Citizenship to Tabunka Kyosei >>, in M.
These specialists, the oyatoi gaikokujin
(foreigners employed by the government), (50) were selected according to the specialties that the Japanese state associated with their nation, beginning with Dutch instructors in naval affairs from 1854-1859.
Gaijin: Contraction of gaikokujin
, which is the Japanese term used to indicate a foreigner, literally "person from a foreign country." Gaijin sometintes has a derogatory connotation because it can also be translated as "outsider" or even "barbarian," especially when used to refer to non-East Asian foreigners, that is, those who have so-called "round eyes"
JIA (Japan Immigration Association) 1985-2010 (different editions); Zairyu Gaikokujin
Tokei Statistics on Foreigners Registered in Japan (Tokyo: Japan Immigration Association).
See Tetsuka Kazuaki, Gaikokujin
to ho [Foreigners and the Law] 61-62, 81 (2005).
In Japan a popular reality TV series "Okusama wa Gaikokujin
" (literally my wife is a foreigner) held a prime-time spot in 2006 and 2007.
2010 <<Heisei 21 nenmatsu genzai ni okeru gaikokujin
torokusha tokei ni tsuite>>.