FODMAPs include fructose, lactose, sorbitol, fructans (e.g., fructooligosaccharides and inulin), and galactans
(also called galactooligosaccharides; e.g., raffinose).
This acronym, which stands for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccarides, and polyols, are sugars (more commonly known as fructose, fructans, galactans
, and lactose) that may not be digested or absorbed well by the body.
Studies based on biology and structural evolution suggested that the SPs could be conserved among taxonomic groups and minor amounts occurring in Chlorophyta than Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta (Pomin & Mourao, 2008), which are the most common sources in sulfated galactans
(mainly carrageenan and agaran) (Maciel et al., 2008; Pomin & Mourao, 2008) and fucan or fucoidan (Pomin & Mourao, 2008; Pomin, 2012), respectively.
Filmexel is composed of an interpenetrating network of two polysaccharides derived from plant materials with traceable, secured and sustained sourcing--galactomannans of Caesalpinia spinosa, a South American shrub described as the "green gold of the Incas;" and sulfated galactans
of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a warm water alga that grows in South East Asia.
Thus, when a polymer is hydrolyzed and yields xylose, it is a xylan; in the same way, hemicelluloses include mannans, glucans, arabinans and galactans
(Whistler and Richards 1970; Viikari et al.1994; Uffen 1997; Ebringerova and Heinze 2000).
Additionally, it is recommended that gluten-unresponsive patients should be investigated for other etiologies of IBS-like symptoms including fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) that include fructose, lactose, fructans, galactans
, xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol, and mannitol intolerance and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
The side chains in the RG-I region are mainly composed of arabinans, galactans
, and/or arabinogalactans of varying length and composition .
Orthodox seeds present a high proportion of galactans
and polysaccharides with arabinose, which acts as a plasticizer, increasing the cell wall flexibility and decreasing strong interactions between polysaccharides (Jones and McQueen-Mason, 2004; Moore et al., 2008).
Among the different macroalgae divisions, red macroalgae are characterized by their high concentration of carbohydrates, composed of monomeric units of glucose that form cellulose and monomeric units of galactose that form agar (galactans
) and carrageenans (primarily sulphated galactose) (Yoon et al., 2010; Park et al., 2012).
Members of the Bacteroidaceae family have been demonstrated to be able to utilize a wide range of carbohydrates, including those that could form plant cell wall (cellulose, xylan, pectins, and [beta]-glucans and galactans
), host mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins .
The total carbohydrate fraction termed holocellulose (cellulose plus hemicellulose), involves the cellulose fraction; whereas, other sugars (xylans, galactans
, mannans and arabinans) represent the hemicellulose fraction (KLOCK et al., 2005).