We take 'intercultural literature', a fluid and dynamic concept, as an umbrella term to account for some aspects of exile, migrant, Gastarbeiter
Immigrants were guests, in some ways, and in the German case they were even called that: Gastarbeiter
("guest worker") is the term for the Italians and Turks, mostly, who came starting in the 1960s to work in German factories, helping create the Wirtschaftswunder, the German economic success after the war.
In Germany, there were Gastarbeiter
-- who were invited from Turkey to compensate for German labour shortages, but whose long-term presence in the country was not fully accepted.
While European Islam as a concept emerged in the 1950s, following a wave of decolonization, and then again in the 1970s with the influx of the Gastarbeiter
, Muslims in the Balkan peninsula had been quarreling with European Modernity for over a hundred years.
(95) See Cem Karaca, "Es kamen Menschen an" [Human beings arrived] in "Songs of Gastarbeiter
Principalmente, por haber mantenido una vision instrumental y temporal de la inmigracion, a modo de Gastarbeiter
, que "refuerza la realidad excluyente entre el Nosotros y los Otros" (2001, 65).
In the 1960s, many Korean nurses and mine workers migrated to Germany, as the country invited Korean laborers as part of its Gastarbeiter
In Ali, Mira plays an aging charwoman who falls in love with a much younger North African Gastarbeiter
A German Nazi scientist who found refuge in Fernando Po at the outbreak of World War II observed that 'usually the Nigerian Gastarbeiter
returns home' after their first contract with 'about three pounds in savings' (Wolff 1942: 98).
Echoes of Turkish immigration and Gastarbeiter
in the 1970s are found in the Polish field hands of the nineteenth-century.