The ilium of Gastrophryne
(narrow-mouth toad; Microhylidae, svl = 20-40 mm), Eleutherodactylus (chirping frog; previously in part within Syrrhophus, Eleuthrodactylidae, svl = 16-38 mm), and Ascaphus (tailed frog; lives today in the wet environments of the northwest of the USA; Ascaphus, svl = 25-51 mm) are minute, distinctly smaller than that of Pseudacris and the fossil.
Influence of habitat complexity of predator-prey interactions between the fish (Gambusia holbrooki) and tadpoles of Hyla squirella and Gastrophryne
areolatus), Plains Spadefoot Toad (Spea bombifrons), Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne
carolinensis), and Four-toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum).
The primary objective of the current work is to describe larval jaw muscle development and metamorphosis in a North American microhylid, the Eastern Narrowmouth toad (Gastrophryne
Gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and Plains narrowmouth toads (Gastrophryne
olivacea) are also known to use the pond for breeding (tadpoles observed), and may live in the nearby prairie.
Twelve species were observed and recorded: Anayrus americanus, Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Hyla chrysoscelis, Hyla cinerea, Hyla gratiosa, Psuedacris crucifer, Pseudacris feriarum, Gastrophryne
carolinensis, Lithobates catesbeiana, Lithobates clamitans, and Lithobates sphenocephala.
Littlejohn, "Reinforcement and reproductive character displacement in Gastrophryne
carolinensis and G.
carolinensis was the most abundant amphibian collected, followed by Sceloporus undulatus for the reptiles, and Blarina carolinensis for the mammals.
septentrionalis consumes a wide variety of invertebrate and vertebrate prey including beetles, roaches, isopods, and lepidopterans; other frogs including the Green Treefrog (Hyla cinerea), Squirrel Treefrog (Hyla squirella), Eastern Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne
carolinensis), Southern Leopard Frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus), and Southern Toad (Anaxyrus terrestris); and lizards including the Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei) and Common House Gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia) (Bartareau and Meshaka 2007; Meshaka 2011).
The two missing species were Gastrophryne
carolinensis and Scaphiopus holbrookii, each recognized as being secretive, burrowing anurans that favor habitats with sandy, gravelly, or other loose soils (Conant and Collins, 1998).
rubrimaculatus (Taylor y Smith 1945) N Leptodactylidae Leptodactylus melanonotus (Hallowell 1861) N Microhylidae Gastrophryne
usta (Cope 1866) Pr N X X Ranidae Lithobates berlandieri (Baird 1854) Pr N X L.