Influence of habitat complexity of predator-prey interactions between the fish (Gambusia holbrooki) and tadpoles of Hyla squirella and Gastrophryne carolinensis
. Copeia, 2004: 173-177.
areolatus), Plains Spadefoot Toad (Spea bombifrons), Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis
), and Four-toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum).
The primary objective of the current work is to describe larval jaw muscle development and metamorphosis in a North American microhylid, the Eastern Narrowmouth toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis
Twelve species were observed and recorded: Anayrus americanus, Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Hyla chrysoscelis, Hyla cinerea, Hyla gratiosa, Psuedacris crucifer, Pseudacris feriarum, Gastrophryne carolinensis
, Lithobates catesbeiana, Lithobates clamitans, and Lithobates sphenocephala.
Littlejohn, "Reinforcement and reproductive character displacement in Gastrophryne carolinensis
was the most abundant amphibian collected, followed by Sceloporus undulatus for the reptiles, and Blarina carolinensis for the mammals.
septentrionalis consumes a wide variety of invertebrate and vertebrate prey including beetles, roaches, isopods, and lepidopterans; other frogs including the Green Treefrog (Hyla cinerea), Squirrel Treefrog (Hyla squirella), Eastern Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis
), Southern Leopard Frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus), and Southern Toad (Anaxyrus terrestris); and lizards including the Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei) and Common House Gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia) (Bartareau and Meshaka 2007; Meshaka 2011).
The two missing species were Gastrophryne carolinensis
and Scaphiopus holbrookii, each recognized as being secretive, burrowing anurans that favor habitats with sandy, gravelly, or other loose soils (Conant and Collins, 1998).
The species chosen for study, the eastern narrow-mouth toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis
), is a common constituent of amphibian communities in the southeastern United States.
, outside of its breeding season, are