References in classic literature ?
She looked, indeed, like one of those wonderful boys of the Italian Renaissance, whom you may still see at the National Gallery, whose beauty is no denial, but rather the stamp of their slender, supple strength, young painters and sculptors who held the palette for Leonardo, or wielded the chisel for Michelangelo, and anon threw both aside to take up sword for Guelf or Ghibelline in the narrow streets of Florence.
The Venetians, moved, as I believe, by the above reasons, fostered the Guelph and Ghibelline factions in their tributary cities; and although they never allowed them to come to bloodshed, yet they nursed these disputes amongst them, so that the citizens, distracted by their differences, should not unite against them.
She handled her subjects agreeably, and they were, perhaps, more worthy of attention than the high discourse upon Guelfs and Ghibellines which was proceeding tempestuously at the other end of the room.
She raised her voice as she spoke; it was heard all over the drawing-room, and silenced the Guelfs and the Ghibellines. The clergyman, inwardly cursing the female sex, bowed, and departed with her message.
At most, Guido (a former Ghibelline) was complicit in this fraud, but if so, then it was a fraud against another Ghibelline family, one that had no obvious reason to distrust him.
Valperga (1823) (2) adds to the historical account of fourteenth-century Ghibelline tyrant Castruccio Castracani two fictional heroines.
His amorous rival is Don Carlos, a Ghibelline, who loves Blanca, a Guelph (or Welf).
Santagata gives a thorough rendering of the strife between the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Dante's Italy, the former the party of the pope, the latter that of the Holy Roman Emperor, the conflict having begun, in Italy, during the reign of Frederick I (1152-1190) of the House of Hohenstaufen.
"When Rivolta was taken by the French there was an Italian captain whom everybody regarded as a valiant comrade-at-arms and who came across a man lying dead, a man who was only an enemy in the sense that he had been a Guelph, while the captain was a Ghibelline. He tore the dead man's heart out of his chest, roasted it over a charcoal fire, and ate it.
(40) Positioned close to that site, where the Misericordia established itself during the early trecento, was a second Adimari edifice known as the Torre di Guardamorto, and according to another possibly related legend, until its (partial) destruction by a Ghibelline mob in 1248, cadavers were kept there during a death-watch lasting eighteen hours prior to entombment in order to ensure that they were lifeless.
In the Inferno, cities as political entities are often castigated for the kinds of severe social dysfunction that breed and encourage violence: Pisa, for instance, represents political injustice and civil cannibalism in the Ugolino story; Genoa is condemned as a city "estranged from all morality, and full of all corruption"; and the City of Dis resembles Dante's Florence, a city at war with itself, as represented by the shared tomb of the Guelph and Ghibelline leaders in Inferno 10 (Carlyle 106-118, 398-405, 410).