On the evening of 13 July 1793 Charlotte Corday, a young woman from a Girondist
family of penurious nobility, dressed in a shabby hotel.
(24) According to Mona Ozouf, the discourse of fraternity enjoyed a similar fate in Europe as a means of reconciling the tensions between moderate Girondist
and radical Jacobin interpretations of the French Revolution, that is, between political and social understandings of the meaning of "equality." For a theoretical discussion of the differences between political and social equality in the North American and French Revolutions, see Arendt.
Tenor Philippe Do, idiomatically heady of tone, seemed happier in his aristocratic breeches and cravat than in his bloodied freedom-fighter gear, but the imposing Irish-American baritone Brian Mulligan was equally comfortable as Girondist
He even entertained the prospect of a parallel event occurring in England and could envision nothing more glorious than "figuring, successful or unsuccessful, as a Girondist
in an English convention." Later Mill would not only defend the Girondists
, but shower praise on "the purest and most disinterested body of men, considered as a party, who ever figured in history.
(4) That Austen may have been open to moderate, Girondist
versions of liberte, egalite, andfraternite is suggested by her reading of Helen Maria Williams, best known for her Letters Written in France: In the Summer of 1790 to a Friend in England, a text which supported the ideals of the revolution (see Jane Austen's letter to her sister Cassandra, 24 November 1815).
When she found an envelope, she'd hold it out to me asking, "Do you need this one?" It was a stamp with a terribly figurative coat of arms, at odds with all the laws of heraldry and accompanied by a date and a motto translated from Girondist
French: 15 June.
Wordsworth the Girondist
is chased into consciousness by the ghost of a text and event that figures waking life as witnessing crimes as terrible as Macbeth's regicide and murder.
(6.) Count Stanislaus de Clermon-Tonnerre (a Girondist
member of the National Assembly), December 23, 1789, cited in Raphael Mahler, A History of Modern Jewry 1780-1815 (New York: Schocken, 1971), p.
Indeed, a broad approach to the mode of 'writing the self' could quite naturally link Marguerite d'Oingt's thirteenth-century account of her spiritual development, for example, and the Memoires of the Girondist
Madame Roland, who wrote her autobiography while in prison awaiting execution, to the modem female life-stories discussed by Michael Sheringham in a later chapter.
Consequently patriots in 1789 were "potential Jacobins." Most leading revolutionaries were linked at some point with the Paris Club or one of its affiliates, but to include all factions within the general designation of Jacobinism Higonnet must employ qualifying labels such as "Feuillant Jacobins," "Girondist
Jacobins," and "Montagnard Jacobins" which downplay philosophical and political differences.