This paper explores several episodes in the development of Pietro Aretino as a writer and satirist that take place over almost twenty years from the time of his arrival in Rome in 1517 as a court poet, to propagandist and author of pasquinades advocating the elevation of Giulio de' Medici
to the papal throne; to playwright of the first draft of the Cortigiana, a comedy hastily sketched in 1525 and in his pack when he fled the city after an attempted assassination; to the satirical voice that claims the freedom to speak the truth to power in the revised Cortigiana, published in Venice in 1534.
Moreover, during this same period his cousin Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
commissioned Raphael to paint an altarpiece depicting the Transfiguration of Christ and Healing of the Boy Possessed by Demons (completed 1518-20).
The text, whose relevance for the early Bolognese history of Codex Cospi had been stressed by Massimo Donattini (2008) in an article unnoticed by Mesoamericanist scholars, (1) describes a gift that a Dominican friar named "Domingo" coming from the "New Indies" brought to Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici
) when the Pope went to Bologna to meet the Emperor Charles V in 15321533.
The Room of Clement VII displays a rich array of scenes marking the deeds of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
, whose Papacy was marked by complex diplomatic relationships with France and Hapsburg Spain, as well as the rebellion and subsequent siege of the Florentine Republic (Muccini and Cecchi 163-83).
Dall'Aglio's book draws its inspiration from the notes jotted down by the Camaldolese monk Paolo Giustiniani (al secolo, Tommaso, 1476-1528) in preparation for the planned reexamination of Savonarola during the meetings of the Florentine Synod of 1516-17, called for by Pope Leo X de' Medici and convened by his cousin, Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
, Archbishop of Florence (and future Pope Clement VII).
(15) The amusing subject would have much appealed to Giulio de' Medici
, who had, himself, recently placed artists in competition, notably when he pitted Raphael against Sebastiano del Piombo in a commission of altarpieces for the cathedral of Narbonne.
European, North American, and Australian scholars describe the pontificate of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
, elevated as Pope in November 1523, and on watch during the spread of the Lutheran heresy, the sack of Rome, and the loss of Britain to the church.
The fact that Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici
) sided with Francois I, and that Francois was defeated al Pavia in 1525, explains the imperial sack of Rome.
He lived for a while in Perugia before moving to Rome in 1517, where he wrote a series of viciously satirical lampoons supporting the candidacy of Giulio de' Medici
for the papacy (Giulio became Pope Clement VII in 1523).
Price Zimmermann discusses Clement's character, as portrayed from a historian's perspective by Francesco Guicciardini and a biographer's perspective by Paolo Giovio, while accounts of the conspiracy against the then Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
in Florence in 1522 are set against Machiavelli's comments on conspiracies in the Discorsi, by Patricia J.
Not a single letter of the artist survives from November 1515 until September 1516, and it is this gap in the correspondence that explains much of the mystery that surrounds not only Michelangelo's intentions but also those of his patrons, Pope Leo X and Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
Macey mentions the importance of Lyons, where there was a colony of Florentine expatriates, but he might have made more of the fact that several members of the Rucellai group, including della Palla, escaped to Lyons after the discovery of the plot against Cardinal Giulio de' Medici