Serologic testing by Western blot was negative for Gnathostoma
Schuster et al., "Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus and Gnathostoma
species," Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.
Jagerskiold, 1909 (Dioctophymatidae); Gnathostoma
gracilis (Diesing, 1839) (Gnathostomidae); Goezia spinulosa (Diesing, 1839) (Anisakidae); Nilonema senticosum (Baylis, 1927) (Philometridae); Terranova serrata (Drasche, 1884) (Anisakidae) and Rumai rumai Travassos, 1960 (Philometridae) (Vicente et al., 1985; Moravec, 1998; Thatcher, 2006; Santos et al., 2008; Luque et al., 2011).
In order to describe the biology and life cycle of Gnathostoma
nematodes; and the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of human gnathostomiasis, Internet search engines, including PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google[R], and Google Scholar[R], were queried with the key medical subject heading (MESH) words, "infections, helminthic; Helminthiasis, gnathosomiasis, neurognathostomiasis; nematode parasites, Gnathostoma
species." Case reports, case series, epidemiological investigations, and laboratory studies were reviewed; high-risk behaviors for gnathostomiasis were identified, and human cases of gnathostomiasis were stratified as cutaneous gnathostomiasis, visceral gnathostomiasis, neurognathostomiasis, and ocular gnathostomiasis.
Nematode species infecting the skin include Gnathostoma
and the filarial species, Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella streptocerca and Dirofilaria spp .
In the Asian countries that are shipping these eels, infection causing Gnathostoma
spinigerum nematodes are common among the farmed as well as wild monopterus eels.
A Gnatostomiase e uma zoonose parasitaria causada por larvas de terceiro estagio do genero de nematodeo Gnathostoma
spp., endemico de regioes onde as pessoas tem o habito de consumir peixes de agua doce crus ou mal cozidos (12).
Among the parasitic diseases included here is gnathostomiasis--caused by the Asian nematode Gnathostoma
The most common nematodes to consider include Strongyloides stercoralis as part of a hyperinfection syndrome, Toxocara species or less commonly Baylisascaris species as agents of visceral larva migrans, or other nematode worms that may involve the CNS such as Angiostrongylus and Gnathostoma
(1) They can be divided into intestinal and tissue-dwelling roundworms, and further into those parasitic to humans only or zoonotic infections, where the adult worms parasitise animals and humans are accidental hosts (Toxocara canis, Angiostrongylus species, Gnathostoma
species, and Trichinella spiralis).