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The supercontinent of the Southern Hemisphere that, according to the theory of plate tectonics, broke up into India, Australia, Antarctica, Africa, and South America.

[After Gondwana, a region of central India, ultimately from Sanskrit Goṇḍavanam : goṇḍaḥ, Gond + vanam, forest.]


(gɒndˈwɑ nə)

a hypothetical landmass that began to separate from Pangaea toward the end of the Paleozoic Era to form South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and peninsular India. Compare Laurasia.
References in periodicals archive ?
The team said the discovery adds to the theory the Gondwanan fossil record of armoured dinosaurs is significantly biased by geological factors and collection efforts.
This paper is a contribution to IGCP 653 'The onset of the Great Ordovician Biodiversity Event' and IGCP 668 'Equatorial Gondwanan history and early Paleozoic evolutionary dynamics'.
Fraser's 'magical' island is constructed on a grander scale than that of Prospero; in addition to his spatial journeys, he has a strong sense of journeying through deep geological time and refers to himself as 'Gondwanan' (p.
Ecosystems that have recently experienced catastrophic changes include the Gondwanan refugia which was destroyed by wildfire ignited by lightning storms in 2016; dieback of floodplain forests along the Murray River following the millennial drought in 2001-2009; large-scale conversion of alpine forest to shrubland due to repeated fires from 2003-2014; and mangrove dieback across a 1,000 kilometre stretch of the Gulf of Carpentaria after a weak monsoon in 2015-2016.
Systematics of the Gondwanan pseudoscorpion family Hyidac (Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisioidea): new data and revised phylogcnetic hypothesis.
When molecules and morphology concur: the "Gondwanan" midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).
The Salt Range, the Surghar Range and other adjoining ranges, during the Permian and Triassic times were located on the northern Gondwanan margin, about 30deg south of the equator on the southern side of the Tethys Ocean (e.g.
Lepidocyrtus and Entomobrya are cosmopolitan, commonly found throughout the American mainland; Dicranocentrus has a pantropical distribution; Seira is a tropical and subtropical genus almost exclusively limited to land masses of Gondwanan origin; Trogolaphysa also has an almost exclusive Gondwanan distribution, but it is strictly tropical; whereas the genus Metasinella is the closest to an endemic Antillean genus, as all but one species (M.
A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the parrots (Psittaciformes): support for a gondwanan origin during the cretaceous.
Landscape fire has been the subject of several environmental histories that reach back millions of years to describe the northern migration of Australia away from its Gondwanan relations, its leaching, drying and increasing susceptibility to fire, and the shift in vegetation from rainforest to sclerophylly (Franklin, 2006; Griffiths, 2001; Pyne, 1998).
A global phytogeny of apple snails: Gondwanan origin, generic relationships, and the influence outgroup choice (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae).