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The supercontinent of the Southern Hemisphere that, according to the theory of plate tectonics, broke up into India, Australia, Antarctica, Africa, and South America.

[After Gondwana, a region of central India, ultimately from Sanskrit Goṇḍavanam : goṇḍaḥ, Gond + vanam, forest.]


(gɒndˈwɑ nə)

a hypothetical landmass that began to separate from Pangaea toward the end of the Paleozoic Era to form South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and peninsular India. Compare Laurasia.
References in periodicals archive ?
This peculiarity contrasts with the habitat of the Laurentian and Gondwanan Groelandaspididae, which had probably been euryhaline (Janvier & Clement 2005).
The Salt Range, the Surghar Range and other adjoining ranges, during the Permian and Triassic times were located on the northern Gondwanan margin, about 30deg south of the equator on the southern side of the Tethys Ocean (e.
Lepidocyrtus and Entomobrya are cosmopolitan, commonly found throughout the American mainland; Dicranocentrus has a pantropical distribution; Seira is a tropical and subtropical genus almost exclusively limited to land masses of Gondwanan origin; Trogolaphysa also has an almost exclusive Gondwanan distribution, but it is strictly tropical; whereas the genus Metasinella is the closest to an endemic Antillean genus, as all but one species (M.
A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the parrots (Psittaciformes): support for a gondwanan origin during the cretaceous.
9 Ma for the stem Pharmacosycea/Tetrapus, and that, biogeographic analyses indicated that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages, is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance.
Landscape fire has been the subject of several environmental histories that reach back millions of years to describe the northern migration of Australia away from its Gondwanan relations, its leaching, drying and increasing susceptibility to fire, and the shift in vegetation from rainforest to sclerophylly (Franklin, 2006; Griffiths, 2001; Pyne, 1998).
A global phytogeny of apple snails: Gondwanan origin, generic relationships, and the influence outgroup choice (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae).
Diversity of bacterial endosymbionts and bacteria-host co-evolution in Gondwanan relict moss bugs (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae).
A geological perspective is essential to appreciate how the biodiversity and ecology of today's Zambezi extends back to its deep Gondwanan origins.
Hopper, Stephen D, Jenny Chappill, Mark Harvey and Alex George (eds) 1996a Gondwanan heritage: past, present, and future of the Western Australian biota, Surrey Beatty and Sons in association with Australian Systematic Botany Society and Kings Park and Botanic Garden, Western Australia, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Rajiformes: Rajidae)--a micro endemic Gondwanan relict from Tasmanian estuaries.