Morphological & functional relations of Graafian
follicle growth to ovulation in women using ultrasonic, laparoscopic and biochemical measurements.
Our previous study confirmed a significant lengthening of the estrous cycle and the diestrus phase, and an increase in the progesterone concentration in female rats treated with dill extracts, but the stereological study did not reveal any changes in the volumes of ovaries, and the primary, secondary, and graafian
follicles are cooler than neighbouring ovarian tissues and deep rectal temperatures.
A recent study demonstrated that the expression levels of GDF9 and BMP15 proteins decreased in the early stages of folliculogenesis (primordial, primary and secondary follicles) and then reached the highest levels in the late stages of folliculogenesis (graafian
follicles) in unstimulated ovarian tissues from PCOS patients (15).
This impact can be seen in all stages of follicle development as a sharp decline in Graafian
follicles observed in the 300 mg/kg-treated group.
The following sexual maturity states were established: immature females, specimens without corpora lutea, closed vulva, uterus poorly developed and vascularised, without placental scars; submature females, voles without corpora lutea but with secondary follicles and/or Graafian
follicles in the ovary, open vulva, uterus poorly vascularised, without placental scars or embryos; active mature females, individuals with corpora lutea, uterus completely developed and well or scarcely vascularised, showing placental scars and/or embryos, and with open vulva; inactive mature females, specimens with corpora lutea, uterus completely developed and well or scarcely vascularised, with or without placental scars, without embryos and with closed vulva.
They were classified as follows : primordial follicle (an oocyte surrounded by one layer of flattened granulosa cells), primary follicle (an oocyte surrounded by one layer of cuboidal granulosa cells), secondary follicle (diverse layers of cuboidal granulosa cells without antral space), tertiary follicle (diverse layers of cuboidal granulosa cells with antral space), and Graafian
follicles (presence of cumulus and granulosa and theca cell layers).
Cystic lesions of the ovary are commonly seen in mammalians and have been described as lutein cysts and ovarian epithelial cysts or Graafian
follicle cysts .
Further highlighting the potential significance of insufficient vascularisation in the aged ovary is the demonstration that oocytes retrieved from Graafian
follicles with reduced vascularisation commonly present with spindle and chromosomal alterations similar to those witnessed in aged MII oocytes [80, 81].
Number of follicles decreased significantly with vitamin E supplementation (P<0.01), highest in cross-bred cows indicating quality graafian
follicles with supplementation.
follicle (FIII) (an oocyte surrounded by zonapellucida, stratified layers of granulosa cells and a large antrum).
Just before ovulation in Graafian
follicles, some thecal cells differentiate into hypertrophic cells and the follicular basement membrane fragments.