This phenomenon is called gravitational lensing
and using it, astrophysicists from University of Oklahoma (OU) have discovered, for the first time, planets outside the Milky Way.
Using the Optical Gravitational Lensing
Experiment (OGLE), astronomers monitor the sky for microlensing events, when a star's light is briefly magnified by the gravitational effect of an object passing in front of it.
This effect, called strong gravitational lensing
, can be used to make a map of the dark matter associated with the cluster, enabling astronomers to work out the exact position of the centre of mass and then measure the offset of the BCG from this centre.
But now, thanks to this gravitational lensing
event, scientists have been able to directly determine Stein 2051 B's mass.
The galaxy images, magnified through a phenomenon called gravitational lensing
, reveal a tangled web of misshapen objects punctuated by exotic patterns such as rings and arcs.
For more information on both Frontier Fields and the phenomenon of gravitational lensing
, see Hubblecast 90: The final frontier.
Named the Refsdal supernova in honour of Norwegian scientist Sjur Refsdal, the first scientist to propose the use of time-delayed images from galaxies undergoing gravitational lensing
to study the universe's expansion, the explosion occurred 10 billion years ago, and was first observed by Hubble in November 2014, in four separate images taken around the Einstein Cross, a rare, distant galactic arrangement in outer space.
In recent years, the Optical Gravitational Lensing
Experiment, one of several efforts to detect celestial bodies wandering in front of stars in the galaxy, has recorded about 2,000 possible events annually.
Five lectures from the course cover re-ionization of the intergalactic medium, weak gravitational lensing
, large-scale structure observations, galaxy formation, and cosmology from theory to data and from data to theory.
According to the scientists, the "lensing" galaxies are so massive that their gravity bends, magnifies, and distorts light from objects behind it, a phenomenon called gravitational lensing
Papers and written versions of seminars from the 2008 meeting address basic properties of clusters of galaxies and the physics of the intracluster gas, simulating galaxy clusters, galaxy systems in the optical and infrared, recent results from S-Z measurements, chemo-dynamical simulations of the intra-cluster medium, the supermodel of the intracluster plasma, simulations of the thermodynamics of the intra-cluster medium, and cluster weak gravitational lensing
, among other topics.
Among the topics are the status and future prospects for ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics in the northern hemisphere, VERITAS observations of galactic gamma-ray sources, neutrino probe comparisons of supernovae as a function of redshift, the angular power spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background as a probe of galactic dark matter substructure, digging into dark matter with weak gravitational lensing
, and cosmological and astrophysical implications of sterile neutrinos.