Gray irons

See under Fire, n.

See also: Iron

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by G. & C. Merriam Co.
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Some of the papers presented covered such topics as: thermochemistry of nodulization and inoculation of irons; nucleation mechanisms in ductile iron; a new approach to graphite nucleation mechanism in gray irons; and a study of hold time and fade effects on microstructure in ductile iron.
Over the years, chromium and silicon were successively added to the point that it's now common to have gray irons with as much as 2.4 percent silicon when no more than 2 percent should be necessary.
Onsoien, SINTEF, Norway, studied the inclusions that may act as nucleation sites for graphite in over-inoculated gray irons (01-094).
Sb is a potent and cost-effective, but also controversial, pearlite stabilizer in gray irons. Its effects are similar to those of Sn, but it is generally about 2-4 times as effective (and less costly), depending on the base iron to which it is added.
He conducted extensive research on malleable and gray irons.
Specimen Characteristics--The microstructures and chemical composition of the five gray irons with different matrix structures are detailed in Tables 2 and 3.
ADI and ECG provide much higher strengths than conventional ductile and gray irons, respectively.
For gray irons, the inoculant additions are at the rate of 0.1-0.4% (typically 0.2-0.3%).
In addition to panels on gating/risering, solving casting defect problems, manganese (Mn) and Mn/sulfur (S) ratios in gray irons, the division featured AFS research reports on fractal methods for assessing ductile iron nodularity, age strengthening of gray iron, status of the ASTM A48 "B" test bar mold and fatigue properties.
The graphite structures that form in cast irons (which are flake-like for gray irons and spherical for ductile irons) are less dense than the iron matrix, and reduce feeding requirements.
Just as we do for class 25, 30, 35 and 40 gray irons, we decided on melting a common base iron that could be alloyed to produce any final grade desired.
The correlation between pinhole occurrence and surface tension is good for gray irons because low surface tension allows easier bubble formation and promotes the occurrence of pinholes.