One coin has Pope Martin IV, the second is Pope Boniface IX and is slightly bent, and the third is of Pope Gregory IX
He died in 1231 in Padua, Italy and was canonized by Pope Gregory IX
Mooney lays out very clearly the problematic early history of the religious women surrounding Clare at San Damiano near Assisi and the efforts by Cardinal Hugo/Hugolino, later Pope Gregory IX
, to conflate Clare's community of sisters at San Damiano with the institution established by him, which did not include Clare's community, but which he very misleadingly called "the Order of San Damiano." Whereas on this and on many other points Mooney comes to firm and believable conclusions, on the authorship of Clare's 1253 forma vitae, she confesses herself to be unsure.
Among their topics are the sack of Jerusalem in 1099 and crusader violence viewed by contemporary chroniclers, scriptural allusions in the crusading accounts of Frutolf of Michelsberg and his continuators, the use of the Bible in the arengae of Pope Gregory IX
's crusade calls, providential history in the chronicles of the Baltic Crusades, and the "holy women" in the liturgy and the art of of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 12th-century Jerusalem.
Of particular note is the new light Mooney sheds (Chapter 7) on one of the most puzzling episodes in the Clarist story, namely, Innocent IV's ill-fated forma vitae that he intended should sweep away the confusion abounding from numerous dispensations granted to the rule by his predecessor, Gregory IX
. What Innocent IV promulgated on 6 August 1247, he torpedoed less than three years later on 6 June 1250.
In 1234, Pope Gregory IX
declared the exclusive authority of the Holy See to bestow the title of "saint." However, this decree did not deter local bishops from conferring beatifications, thereby creating a clear distinction between "saint" and "beatified."
Later Elias sided with the Emperor Frederick II, against Pope Gregory IX
, and was excommunicated.
Already venerated even before his death, Francis took the fast track to sainthood; work on the basilica began in 1228, the same year he was canonized by Pope Gregory IX
, a mere two years after his death.
(127) Similar letters existed for Cardinal Hyacinth and Rainier of Ponza, and John of Abbeville received letters of thanks during his legation from Gregory IX
: SMITH, The Iberian Legations of Cardinal Hyacinth Bobone, pp.
It depicts Pope Gregory IX
approving the Vatical Decretals - with a spitting image of Stallone looking on.
Student Anthony Zonfrell, 20, couldn't believe his eyes when he visited the Vatican City and saw a fresco by Raphael Sylvester with Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
named him to the College of Cardinals in 1239.