As such, purified recombinant MAG was found to block neurite outgrowth as well as induce growth cone
retraction [52, 75].
In neuronal growth cone
the link (clutch) involves the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule  or the L1 cell adhesion molecule .
If conditions are favorable, the retraction bulb is transformed in a growth cone
, a dynamic structure, which extends and guides the regenerating axon towards its target.
At the end of each neurite is a growth cone
where structural proteins are assembled to form the cell membrane.
The team found that RNA molecules embedded in the growth cone
are responsible for instructing the axon to move left or right, up or down.
On the other hand, studies have demonstrated that GSK-3[beta] phosphorylation of the CRMP-2 T509 site can play a crucial role in mediating the repulsive action of Sema3A and promoting growth cone
Neurons were plated between grooves scored onto the cell culture dish to restrict neurite outgrowth and facilitate growth cone
interactions with muscle fibers (Fig.
Their topics include investigating systems to study the biological effects of weak physiological electrical fields, stem cell physiological responses to noninvasive electrical stimulation, how physiological electric fields can direct keratinocyte migration and promote healing in chronic wounds, inflammatory cell electrotaxis, neuronal growth cone
guidance by physiological direct current electric fields, and whether applied voltages can be used to produce spinal cord regeneration and recover in humans.
The role of cytoskeleton in organizing growth cones
: a microfilament-associated growth cone
component depends upon microtubules for its localization.
Other topics include quantum dots as cellular probes, microfluidic and microfabricated devices for blood cell separation, growth cone
and axonal pathfinding strategies, the mechanics of healing myocardial infarcts, and functional electrical stimulation for neuromuscular applications.
The trkA receptor mediates growth cone
turning toward a localized source of nerve growth factor.