Experiments on cells in dishes suggested that axons, signal-transmitting tendrils led by tiny pioneering structures called growth cones
, grew differently on hard and soft material.
In neurons, the concentration of mitochondria in specific regions such as growth cones
and synapses is important for correct neuronal function and development.
44) Conversely, overexpression of MLK-1 improves the frequency and timing of growth cone
formation, as well as the rate of successful migration of growth cones
to their target sites.
These RNAs are translated in growth cones
to produce antenna-like proteins that steer the axon like a self-guided missile.
4] The salient feature of chemotropism is that axonal growth cones
act as sensors to concentration gradients of molecules in the environment and grow up the gradient towards the target [source].
Thus, we suggest that this first stage of motoneuronal regeneration, characterized by axonal guidance to peripheral tissues and transient electrical coupling of buccal neurons, might require a special state of activity coordination among damaged neurons to promote the synchronous elongation of axons and the speedy arrival of growth cones
at potential peripheral targets (Fig.
The role of cytoskeleton in organizing growth cones
: a microfilament-associated growth cone
component depends upon microtubules for its localization.
were fine, appeared delicate structures and had fine filopodial-like processes (Fig.
However, most growth cones
of adult neurons lack sufficient amounts of MMPs to digest all the regeneration-inhibiting factors in the CNS, and thus their ability to regeneration remains blocked.
Typically, pioneering axons have larger growth cones
to guide themselves to their targets.
Because activated FAK is important in cell adhesion, we hope to observe active FAK located within the neurite extensions, primarily in the growth cones
, where it would be important in regulating neurite adhesion and projection.
This appraisal details Bryan's introduction of short-term, aggregate growth cones
for setting monetary policy as a means of achieving his longer-term targets and the opposition he faced within the FOMC.