In our initial characterization of actin filament dynamics in Aplysia growth cones
, we noted that when cones were treated with 2-5 [[micro]molar] cytochalasin, retrograde flow did not appear to be markedly affected.
He has observed growth cones
, the specialized axon tips characteristic of growing axons during embryonic development.
Pathway selection by growth cones
of identified motoneurones in live zebra fish eggs.
More recent work indicates that serotonin also increases the nerve cell signal in growth cones
, the developmental precursors to mature axons.
In neurons, this results in an inhibition of axonal growth, converting growth cones
into a dystrophic state [13-15].
Proteoglycans produce a sticky quagmire, trapping and restricting the cut nerve fiber tips (called growth cones
) from making their journey back to their proper synaptic connections.
 The salient feature of chemotropism is that axonal growth cones
act as sensors to concentration gradients of molecules in the environment and grow up the gradient towards the target [source].
On the other hand, ROCKs stimulate the retraction of axonal and dendritic growth cones
by activating MLCK through the phosphorylation of myosin light chain proteins to promote an interaction with actin .
Thus, we suggest that this first stage of motoneuronal regeneration, characterized by axonal guidance to peripheral tissues and transient electrical coupling of buccal neurons, might require a special state of activity coordination among damaged neurons to promote the synchronous elongation of axons and the speedy arrival of growth cones
at potential peripheral targets (Fig.
The role of cytoskeleton in organizing growth cones
: a microfilament-associated growth cone
component depends upon microtubules for its localization.
Bridgman, "Retrograde flow rate is increased in growth cones
from myosin IIB knockout mice," Journal of Cell Science, vol.
Experiments on cells in dishes suggested that axons, signal-transmitting tendrils led by tiny pioneering structures called growth cones
, grew differently on hard and soft material.