homocysteine

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ho·mo·cys·te·ine

 (hō′mə-sĭs′tə-ēn′, -ĭn, -tē-)
n.
An amino acid, C4H9NO2S, not found in proteins, that is used by the body in cellular metabolism. Elevated concentrations in the blood are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

[homo-, homologous with (from homologous) + cysteine.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

homocysteine

(ˌhəʊməʊˈsɪstiːn)
n
(Chemistry) an amino acid occurring as an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine. Elevated levels in the blood may indicate increased risk of cardiovascular disease
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
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Normal plasma concentration of Hcy is ranged as 4-12 umol/l while mean Hcy concentrations are 5.6 umol/l at 8-16 weeks, 4.3umol/l at 20-28 weeks, and 5.5umol/l at 36-42 weeks of gestation10,11.
Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the Hcy levels in type 2 diabetics and correlate Hcy with HbA1c levels, BMI, blood pressure and duration of diabetes.
Biochemical examination showed high plasma total Hcy level (495 [micro]mol/L [normal <15 [micro]mol/L]).
From a biological viewpoint, Hcy methylation is influenced by several rate-limiting enzymes, and thereof methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme.
Ophthalmologists required urgent surgery He was diagnosed with MTHFR deficiency during early babyhood, and his Hcy level two months prior wasl81 [micro]mol [L.sup.-1] His pediatrician administered high doses of ASA (15 mg [kg.sup.-1]).
The inflammatory markers used were Hcy, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), TNF-[alpha], and serum ferritin.
Los alcoholicos cronicos normalmente tienen niveles elevados de Hcy. En este contexto, se ha encontrado asociacion entre los niveles plasmaticos elevados de Hcy y el consumo de alcohol, sosteniendo que el consumo de etanol incrementa los niveles de metilacion del ADN (Bonsch et al., 2004, 2006).
However, other studies showed that hyperinsulinemia can cause elevated plasma Hcy by impairing the activity of Hcy metabolizing enzymes [30,31].
Hcy is also metabolized to the thioester Hcy-thiolactone in an error-editing reaction in protein biosynthesis when Hcy is erroneously selected in place of Met by methionyl-tRNA synthetase [2].
To evaluate the specificity of the assay, the spectral response of probe 1 towards various biologically relevant analytes including twenty natural protein amino acids, AA, Hcy, and GSH was recorded.
Demographic information, smoking habit, history of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 24 h urinary albumin excretion and ACR, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and homocysteine (Hcy) of each participant were obtained.
As the primary outcomes were changes in the concentrations of CRP, Hcy, follistatin, TNF-[alpha], IL-6, leukocyte total number, and several adhesion molecules with the use of COCs, only studies in which individuals were used as their own control were included.