In the United Kingdom, clinics that screen for these viruses (antenatal and sexual health settings) do not ask about the practice and do not screen for HTLV
. We propose that self-flagellation be added to the list of risk factors that result in testing for bloodborne viruses, including HTLV-1.
HTLV-1 infection was diagnosed using several commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) (HTLV
, enhanced, EIA, Cambridge Biotech Corporation, Worcester, MA) followed by Western Blot 2.4 (Genelabs Diagnostics GLD, Science Park Drive, Singapore) for confirmation and discrimination between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2.
Human retroviruses have the worldwide distribution but because of the lack of HTLV
screening in most of the countries, its coinfection rate with HIV-1 has been underestimated.
and Shehu, S.M., Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV
1) and lymphoid malignancies in Dominica: A seroprevalence study.
(15,16) Apesar de ainda nao haver dados publicados sobre a prevalencia da infeccao em nosso estado, o projeto "Estudo da prevalencia e da transmissao vertical de HIV, HTLV
e Sifilis em gestantes da Regiao Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro"--desenvolvido por um grupo de pesquisadores da UERJ e aceito para publicacao no periodico PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases--identificou prevalencia de 0,66% em 1204 parturientes na regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro.
The new legislation removes the blanket testing requirement and replaces it with mandated HTLV
testing only of tissues that are rich in viable leukocytes.
More recently, two other types of HTLV
have been described, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4, which are currently being investigated for molecular characterization and for a possible association with human disease (3).
A third article published at the same time (15) again asserted that HTLV-III is "a true member of the HTLV
family" yet "clearly distinguishable from HTLV-I and -II." There were somewhat confused claims concerning which antigens are associated with which of these retroviruses.
The Food and Drug Administration mandates certain screening tests for blood--including tests for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 (anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2), Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV
) types I and II (anti-HTLV-I and anti-HTLV-II), serologic test for syphilis, Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAT) for HIV-1 and HCV, and NAT for West Nile Virus.
William Switzer, a researcher at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and his colleagues sequenced HTLV
strains from a high-risk population: people in Cameroon who reported contact with nonhuman primate tissues through hunting and butchering or keeping primate pets.