In our patient, renal cortical location, lack of evidence of urinary tract or a neighbouring infection indicated a haematogenous
The different mechanisms postulated for small bowel metastasis from abdomen or pelvis include; retrograde lymphatic spread following initial blockade of para-aortic or mediastinal lymph nodes, peritoneal seedlings, direct extension by continuity or by permeation of the lymphatic spaces in connective tissues and haematogenous
However, it is generally believed that infection of the breast is usually secondary to a tuberculosis focus elsewhere, such as pulmonary or a lymph node in the paratracheal, internal mammary, or maxillary which may not be clinically or radiologically apparent.12 Secondary BT is caused by haematogenous
spread.2 In our series two patients had evidence of
The majority develop from haematogenous
spread of circulating organisms to the bone or joint, but a minority arise from direct contamination by penetrating wounds or surgery.
In this cohort and others, the most common mode of splenic involvement is haematogenous
. In our cohort, we had five patients with vertebral or psoas TB, which could also be the focus of later splenic spread by contiguity.
They have a propensity for haematogenous
and lymphatic spread.
We herein present a case of nosocomial meningitis complicated by multiple brain abscesses in a neurosurgical patient, which resulted from the haematogenous
spread of an O117:K52:H-E.
In the pre-antibiotic era, mortality from Haematogenous
ITB results from haematogenous
spread or spread from contiguous lymph nodes or swallowed infected sputum.
Staging investigations suggested a T2N1 cancer with no haematogenous
They result from direct or haematogenous
spread of pathogens, or when a haematoma becomes infected.
Retinoblastoma metastasises through haematogenous
dissemination, lymphatic spread, direct infiltration along the optic nerve and dispersion through the cerebrospinal fluid, after cells in the optic nerve invade the leptomeninges.