hapten

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Related to Haptens: Epitopes

hap·ten

 (hăp′tĕn′) also hap·tene (-tēn′)
n.
A small molecule that reacts with a specific antibody but does not induce an immune response unless bound to a larger molecule, usually a protein.

[German : Greek haptein, to fasten + German -en, noun suffix (from Greek -ēnē, -ene).]

hap·ten′ic adj.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

hapten

(ˈhæptən) or

haptene

n
(Physiology) immunol an incomplete antigen that can stimulate antibody production only when it is chemically combined with a particular protein
[C20: from German, from Greek haptein to fasten]
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

hap•ten

(ˈhæp tɛn)

also hap•tene

(-tin)

n.
a substance that reacts with antibodies but cannot by itself stimulate more antibodies; a partial antigen.
[1920–25; < German < Greek hápt(ein) to grasp + German -en -ene]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The implementation of targeted epicutaneous tests (patch tests) using relevant haptens [3] enables a more accurate diagnostic evaluation.
Allergic contact dermatitis is the type of contact dermatitis induced by sensitivity to specific allergens with a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to exogenous agents.1 Langerhans cells take up the antigens or haptens and present them to T helper lymphocytes, which become sensitized, multiply and circulate in blood vessels as memory cells.1 When these memory cells encounter the antigens again, they sensitize the skin to these antigens.1
At the first epicutaneous contact (the sensitization phase), the haptens stimulate keratinocytes to express adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1-[alpha], IL-1[beta], TNF-a, IL-6) and chemokines (IP-10, MCP-1, RANTES, CCL18) (15-18).
He then next cites an article in the Journal of Applied Toxicology by Aristo Vojdani et al that shows some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to proteins in our body, such as albumin, and form a protein adduct that is now seen as a neo-antigen or new antigen that is no longer self but modified self.
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens that come into contact with the skin.
With haptens, like with KDN, the immunological response is usually achieved by chemical modification with the hapten-carrier complex (e.g., BSA-bovine serum albumin) and modifications to introduce active groups.
The pathogenesis remains unknown and it was presumed that metabolites of dapsone, could form haptens with the production of anti-dapsone antibodies.
Currently, the T cell assay has been used to characterize the T cell response to a variety of drugs and drug haptens.
Several techniques have been developed for the realization of pretargeting concept including avidin/streptavidin-biotin systems [216, 217, 232, 233]; bispecific antibodies (bsmAb) with haptens [232, 234-254]; antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates with complementary oligonucleotides [255]; biorthogonal systems allowing covalent chemical reactions in vivo (Figure 8).
Belman, "Elicitation of delayed allergic skin reactions with haptens; the dependence of elicitation on hapten combination with protein," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
Delayed hypersensitivity reactions of skin are often induced by dermal or intradermal exposure to small lipophilic chemicals (haptens) with a molecular weight less than 500 Daltons.