Sara Levy's World shows that this secular Enlightenment (Aufklarung) worked in tandem with the Haskalah
. While Sara Levy's world emphasized Bildung (the German word for culture), Haskalah
placed emphasis on tarbut (the Hebrew word for culture).
Sloin speaks of a "Bolshevik Haskole" that aimed to "enlighten" the Jewish masses--rather like the early Berlin-Vilna (etc.) Haskalah
that wanted to usher benighted Jewry into the modern world.
Among their topics are images and narratives: Germans and Jews in the "Annales seu Cronicae incliti Regni Poloniae" of Jan Dlugosz (1415-80), from Johann Pezzi to Joseph Perl: Galician Haskalah
and the Austrian Enlightenment, in the defense of Germandom in the east: Jews and the Verein f'r das Duetschtum im Ausland, transformations of the relationship between Jews and Germans in the Bukovina 1910-40, and aliens in the lands of the Plasts: the Polonization of Lower Silesia and its Jewish community in the years 1945-50.
Instead, the first published appearances of Jewish humor appear in 19th-century Germany, at the unlikely intersection of two seemingly disconnected threads: the German idea of the Judenwitz, a "caustic, mercenary, destructive, and merely clever" style thought to characterize Jewish writers, and the Haskalah
, the Jewish Enlightenment.
The European Enlightenment preceded the Jewish equivalent, or Haskalah
, by that much.
There is a strong case to be made that Azulai's flirtation with secular culture in his travelogue Ma'agal Tov (The Good Circuit) should place him among those agents of the "early haskalah
" who preceded Moses Mendelssohn in engaging with the outside world within traditionally Jewish constructs.
In Germany, Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) founded the Haskalah
, a Jewish Renaissance, based on the idea that Judaism is a religion focused only on ethical issues while the intellect must be free from religious restrictions to pursue evidence-based rationality.
Korzweil claims that Shalom's poetry, as most of modern Hebrew poetry since the Haskalah
movement, is "an extreme and superfluous utilization of Jewish mysticism for the purpose of deification of man, who replaced God" (Korzweil, "Diving Into" 93).
More convincingly, he traces the humor of self-hate to the Haskalah
, a secular movement that began in late-eighteenth-century Germany.
Hasidism, a branch of Judaism born in the eighteenth century under the guidance of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, was often the target of Rabbinic Judaism and of the supporters of the Jewish Enlightenment movement, the Haskalah
, because the principles of Hasidism were said to cultivate superstition and ignorance.
Wolfe's definition of universalism invokes the Haskalah
, the Jewish enlightenment movement founded by Moses Mendelssohn in Berlin in the late 18th century.