Hawking radiation

(redirected from Hawking temperature)
Related to Hawking temperature: Boltzmann constant

Hawking radiation

n.
A form of radiation believed to emanate from black holes, arising from the creation of pairs of subatomic particles in the space adjacent to the black hole, with one particle falling into the black hole and the other radiating away. The energy lost to such radiated particles is believed to cause the eventual disappearance of the black hole.

[After Stephen William Hawking.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Hawking radiation

n
(Astronomy) astronomy the emission of particles by a black hole. Pairs of virtual particles in the intense gravitational field around a black hole may live long enough for one to move outward when the other is pulled into the black hole, making it appear that the black hole is emitting radiation
[C20: discovered by Stephen Hawking]
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References in periodicals archive ?
Their topics include a short scrapbook on classical black holes, the thermality of Hawking radiation: from Hartle-Hawking to Israel and Unruh, the Euclidean section and Hawking temperature, the roots of analogue gravity, and Hawking radiation in a non-dispersive nonlinear Kerr dielectric.
Further, the effects of the GUP have also been considered in the tunneling formalism for Hawking radiation to evaluate the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole [42-46].
However, the Hawking temperature, h[c.sup.3]/8[pi][k.sub.B]GM, of a Planck mass black hole is normally assumed to be [T.sub.p]/8[pi], yielding a Planck acceleration of [a.sub.p] [approximately equal to] [1/4] [square root of [c.sup.7]/hG].
They employed the dynamical geometry approach to calculate the imaginary part of the action for the tunneling process of s-wave emission across the horizon and related it to the Boltzmann factor for the emission at the Hawking temperature. Due to back-reaction effects included, this procedure gives a correction to the standard Hawking temperature formula, which speeds up the process of black holes' evaporation.
If one is able to understand the need and importance of "universe being a black hole for ever", "CMBR temperature being the Hawking temperature" and "angular velocity of cosmic black hole being the present Hubble's constant", a true unified model of "black hole universe" can be developed.
For a black hole with mass M, the Hawking temperature is given by T = 1/8[pi]M [4, 5].
The significant connection between gravitation and thermodynamics is established after the remarkable discovery of black hole (BH) thermodynamics with Hawking temperature as well as BH entropy [13-16].
Also, subsequently, by a novel formulation of the tunnelling formalism, Banerjee and Majhi [7] directly derived the black body spectrum for both bosons and fermions from a BH with standard Hawking temperature. The analysis in [7] was improved by one of us, Christian Corda [15], who found as final result a nonstrictly black body spectrum in agreement with the emission probability in [2,3].
Considering the Hawking temperature (similar to (12), we ignore the direct correction to the radius in the Hawking temperature, and the changes of numbers of degrees of freedom directly stem from the corrections of the area of the apparent horizon) T = 1/2[pi][r.sub.A] and E = -([rho] + 3p)[??] with dark energy in the bulk, we obtain
Subsequently, using the modified Dirac equation, we calculate the tunneling probability of the Dirac particle by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and, then, we find the modified Hawking temperature of the black hole.
Furthermore, the associated Hawking temperature is expressed by
Here [T.sub.H] = [square root of (1 - [epsilon]d[OMEGA]/dt)]/8[pi]M is the Hawking temperature. According to the first law of black hole thermodynamics, the entropy of Rutz-Schwarzschild black hole is calculated as