However, the Hawthorne effect
, which essentially holds that when someone knows they are being watched, consciously complies.
It was likely that the excellent outcomes in both groups resulted from a Hawthorne effect
in which the behavior of study participants is influenced by the fact that they were being observed, in addition to the fact that the physicians involved in the study already were practicing high-quality care as part of their "standard" regimen.
Most important, perhaps, they suffer from a medical version of the Hawthorne effect
: When doctors know they are being observed, they behave differently.
When occupants become aware of being monitored, they may change their natural behaviors towards social desirability and researchers' expectations, known as the Hawthorne effect
(McCambridge et al.
While the Hawthorne effect
has been considered in many studies (McCambridge, Witton, & Elbourne, 2014), Burge et al.
Many of the entries are clear and helpful, such as the entry for the Hawthorne effect
. The effect is first said to be something that threatens the internal validity of research, and then the author cites Saldanha & O'Brien: [the effect occurs] "when subjects alter (usually improve) their normal behavior because they are aware that they are being studied".
This change of attitude towards interpretation in studies can be explained by the Hawthorne effect
. Participants tend to be more careful and concerned with accuracy and exactness, a phenomenon of altered behavior resulting from the awareness of being part of an experimental study [25, 26].
This phenomenon is also known as the Hawthorne effect
Hand hygiene compliance measurements have been studied and methods have been proposed to alleviate concerns associated with interobserver variation, sampling bias, and the Hawthorne effect
Finally, a related phenomenon that is common enough to have earned its own name is the Hawthorne Effect
, also called observation bias.
(2) The Hawthorne effect
(also referred to as the observer effect) refers to a phenomenon whereby workers improve or modify an aspect of their behaviour in response to the fact of change in their environment rather than in response to the nature of the change itself.