After Hughes read opening remarks, many people were honored and given tokens of appreciation for their sponsorship of the conference, as well as their contributions to Poe and Hawthorne studies
, including Shoko Itoh and Richard Kopley, who both received Lifetime Achievement Awards for Poe Scholarship.
As the Hawthorne studies
and Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model showed, meeting the psychological needs of employees through a well-designed employer-employee relationship is critical for employee well-being and motivation, and ultimately, organizational performance.
The Hawthorne studies
revealed that "workers were not mere automatons to be measured and goosed with a stopwatch; that it was probably helpful to inquire after what they knew and felt; and that a group had substantial control over how much it was prepared to produce." At a time when management was thought to be a simple science of supervision and incentives, these were novel insights.
Courtmanche would be of best use to a newcomer of Hawthorne studies
to help students examine the author's use of literary devices, while Walter would put Hawthorne's fiction into a broader context of the American romantic tradition.
Roethlisberger, conducted what are now known as the Hawthorne studies
trying to discover the optimal length of work productivity.
The selections and supporting material cover issues of leadership, including transactional approaches and readings from Follett, Barnard, Fiedler, Schein, Chemers and Bolman and Deal; motivation, including background material on the Hawthorne studies
and cognitive dissidence and work by Maslow, McGregor, VroomWright and Locke; individuals in teams and groups, including work by Alderfer, Majchrzak, Malhotra, Stamps and Lipnack; effects of the work environment, including work by Asch, Merton, Janis, Harvey and Schein; power and influence, including work by Mechanic, Etzioni, Kanter, Bies and Trip, and Hagberg; and organizational change, including background material on transformation and work by Lewin, Argyris, Senge, Greiner and Bennis.
Carey, Alex (1967) 'The Hawthorne studies
: A radical criticism', American Sociological Review, 32(3), June, 403-416.
Ross includes references to Elton Mayo's Hawthorne studies
to substantiate his view that the new economy workplace appealed to workers' need for recognition and fulfillment.
Most educators have heard of it by another name, the Hawthorne Studies
. One part of the sizable research project was to determine how much illumination was needed to get maximum output from factory workers.
The conclusions drawn by Mayo from the Hawthorne studies
established the beginnings of the importance of management style as a major contributor to industrial productivity, of interpersonal skills as being as important as monetary incentives or target-setting, and of a more humanistic approach as a means of satisfying the organisation's economic needs and human social skills.
When the Hawthorne studies
were designed, everybody knew they were being measured for productivity.