solar scientists have some sense of what's happening inside the sun, which they believe to be made up of granules and super-granules of moving solar material.
studies have built up a certain picture of the solar interior, including such details as the depth of the convection zone.
works on the same principle as medical ultrasound, which can create an image of a fetus inside a pregnant woman," Scherrer explains.
, dynamo, and magnetic helicity.
Even so, proponents of the gaseous models adhere to the belief that helioseismology
can claim otherwise.
For instance, there are sound waves passing through the gaseous interior of our sun -- there's a whole branch devoted to studying these waves, called helioseismology
. (We can't actually hear these sound waves thanks to the 93 million miles of vacuum between Earth and the sun).
Their analysis technique is called "time-distance helioseismology
," and it is similar to an approach widely used in earthquake studies.
Both of these tools have already been in use for decades and have already been compared successfully with observations by way of synthetic spectra and helioseismology
It presents 90 papers within sections on Hinode perspectives on coronal/chromospheric heating; bringing modeling and observations together; solar magnetic activity; perspectives on the physics of coronal loops; past, present, and future collaborative observational/theory programs; sunspot structure and dynamics; sources of the solar wind and coronal mass ejection; local helioseismology
with Hinode; and flare physics.
They see a few sunspots whose latitudes and magnetic fields are consistent with Cycle 24, and helioseismology
studies of the solar interior reveal gas flows that are following the same pattern as the early part of Cycle 23.
Along these lines, it is concerning that the Sun can be studied using coronal helioseismology
[48-51] which suggests a twenty-ninth line of evidence that it is comprised of condensed matter.
International contributors from Cuba to Kazakhstan and most parts in between provide essays on topics such as solar filaments and their eruptions, the time-distance helioseismology
of sunspots, some peculiarities of research into multi-scale ionospheric irregularities by radio methods, solar type IV bursts at frequencies 10-30 MHZ, and a numerical study of formation and propagation of giant electric jets between a thundercloud and the lower ionosphere.