The confessional state of the Dutch Republic also felt threatened in the 1730s and 1740s, as is clear from the strong reactions to the immigration of Herrnhuters
, as well as from the polemics concerning pietist "bestsellers," and last but not least from the commotion caused by the Nijkerk movement.
Andreas Gestrich and Carola Wessel detail the variant experiences of Herrnhuters
in eighteenth-century Russia and the upper Ohio Valley, respectively.
And what was that difference again between the Hutterites and the Herrnhuters
? Where did the communitarian Mennonites end up?
This latter image is part of the material examined by Irina Novikova in a fascinating article on the constru ction of national identity in Latvia, in which she also draws on peasant women s folk songs (collected and written down in the nineteenth century by male intellectuals as evidence of an "authentic" collective identity), the epic narrative of Latvian origins Lacplesis written by Andrejs Pumpers with a warrior hero, and ideologies of familial relations created by the religious group known as Latvia as the Herrnhuters
. (Generally called Moravians when they immigrated to the United States.) Jitka Maleckova uses a similar range of popular and learned sources in her discussion of the Czech national movement.
It describes the activities of the Herrnhuter
missionaries in Tranquebar and on the Nicobar Islands, the role of Moltke and the Danish company, and it also looks at the relationship between the Herrnhuters
and their rivals, The article is well researched and, along with a new monograph by Stephan Diller, contributes significantly to our knowledge of the Danes and various groups working under Danish protection in Asia.