The name derives from their position on the famous Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
, which classifies stars according to their brightness and temperature.
After such a star finally ages off the main sequence, completes its red-giant phase, and evolves onto the horizontal branch in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
(shown at left), it spends a while pulsing rapidly before advancing to its final death throes.
The end product looked at the distances of each star and the spectral classes of the stars shown by colour through the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
It still is on the hydrogen-burning main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
of stellar evolution.
After a red giant has depleted all the helium in its core, it goes through various death throes, then sinks to the lower left in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
, becoming a lifeless "white dwarf.
This proves the results, for example: the definition of the independent determination of the ultimate density of physical vacuum , the explanation of the nature of electron charge and finding its numerical value as well as numerical values of the constants of radiation [7, 9], the determination of the proton-electron mass ratio, the accounting of the forces of gravity in microcosm, the finding the neutron lifetime , the modeling the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
, the definition of model parameters of pulsars , the conclusion about the existence of two types of planetary systems , etc.
Russell constructed the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
The contraction towards dense cores, which must get rid of their increasing thermal energy through molecular line radiation, is treated, discussing also how development appears on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
(in the case of low-mass stars)-e.
UK) present the proceedings of a November 2008 workshop bringing together researchers studying the morphologically separated, yet evolutionarily connected, stars in the upper blue and red sections of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
, which have typically been studied separately in spite of their connections.
Equally economic is the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
, used in astronomy to describe the way stars live out their lives as reflected in changes that occur in their temperature, size and luminosity.