The second study evaluated chlorophyllin's ability to protect against the damage caused by heterocyclic amines
. The results showed that chlorophyllin significantly reduced DNA damage in colorectal cells following a meal of meat cooked at high temperatures, a dangerous source of cancer-causing heterocyclic amines
Cooking beef and other meats at high temperatures, such as grilling over an open flame or pan frying, can produce chemicals known as heterocyclic amines
(HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
(1) Heterocyclic amines
(HCAs) and other cooking-related mutagens in meat are among several possible culprits that trigger carcinogenesis.
High-heat cooking methods such as pan frying or barbecuing produce high concentrations of known or suspected carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines
and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
First, research has shown that high-heat grilling can convert proteins in red meat, pork, poultry, and fish into heterocyclic amines
"Starting many years ago, scientists found that heterocyclic amines
and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are formed when meats are cooked to well done at high temperatures," explains Cross.
The chemicals heterocyclic amines
(HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form when muscle meat from beef, pork, poultry, and fish is prepared using high temperature cooking methods such as pan-frying or direct-flame grilling.
(HCAs) are carcinogenic compounds that are produced when muscle foods, such as ground beef patties, are barbecued, grilled, boiled or fried.
"However, cooking fumes consist of a mixture of toxic and mutagenic compounds, including mutagenic aldehydes and heterocyclic amines
with no known dose-response relationship, so exposure to cooking fumes should be reduced as much as possible."
Fried and grilled meat have especially high levels of cancer-causing compounds called heterocyclic amines
(HAs), produced by the effect of hot temperatures on sugars and amino acids.
The compounds, heterocyclic amines
, form when food is cooked at high temperatures.
Second, the grilling of meat can form two kinds of potentially carcinogenic compounds: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines