Douzinas' recognition of the significance of Levinas in legal thinking is to be welcomed and may contribute to a shift of emphasis from autonomy to heteronomy
in the study of justice.
These effects of heteronomy
should be stronger the greater the legitimacy of the external control and the sparser the opportunities available to the staff for employment elsewhere.
Among the moral extremes depicted, there is an infinity of miner variations apparently inconsistent with major principles, be it heteronomy
Certainly this is a paradoxical phenomenon since, from other perspectives, the recent period has been characterised by the collapse of what remained of the religious pillars of heteronomy
and the triumph of the metaphysical principle of human independence.
Its very unawareness of its own other-determined existence, its heteronomy
in other words, shows that its primary understanding of itself as subject is already given to it by the prevalent norms and beliefs in its context, which in this case are fundamentally subjectivist.
Faulks wrongly locates the idea of autonomy within the classical liberal tradition of writers after Locke who believed instead in heteronomy
(to use Kant's phrase).
A further reference to the Cartesian subject comes in Mechoulan's essay on Madeleine de Scudery: looking at the reflections of Scudery in the characters of Sappho and Damophile within the Grand Cyrus, Mechoulan comes to the conclusion that the female subject is "systematiquement dedouble," caught between self-possession and self-abandonment, unity and heteronomy
She places her discourse under the theme of heteronomy
(in the Kantian sense of reciprocal contingent forces at work in apparently autonomous expressions).
The self as the who of action lives between autonomy and heteronomy
(Schrag, 1997, p.
The essence of this contrast lies in heteronomy
versus autonomy: what the public regards an ethically acceptable corporate conduct is mainly due to 'deference to public pressures' (p.
The research of Piaget and Kohlberg shows how children develop from moral heteronomy
to moral autonomy.
As Panikkar astutely perceives, autonomy is in the last analysis always "a reaction against heteronomy
," that is, a rebellion "against the abuses of the heteronomic structure"; in this context, there is still a limited place for God, but "for a God who respects the rules of the game, for a God, as it were, whose nature and whose attributes I discover and in a sense I postulate.