Studies in which females are inseminated by males of a closely related species (heterospecific
crosses) often result in reduced fertilization, strongly suggesting that females possess mechanisms to discriminate between sperm from hetero- and conspecific males (Dobzhansky 1951; Hewitt et al.
Dissecting the smell of fear from conspecific and heterospecific
prey: investigating the processes that induce anti-predator defenses Oecologia, 180:55-65.
These small male spiders live in a world of multiple predation risks, including conspecific females, heterospecific
spiders and other predatory invertebrates and vertebrates.
mellifera bees during each conspecific or heterospecific
In laboratory, both the red and confused flour beetle males responded towards their conspecific females and completed the whole courtship sequence (contact, mount and copulation) in a mating area, whereas some males of both species mounted and attempted copulation to heterospecific
females (Serrano et al., 2000).
kleptoparasitism by Crested Caracaras of Ospreys.
This hypothesis predicts that it would be advantageous for female cowbirds to be able distinguish between heterospecific
vocalizations, to preferentially parasitize more suitable hosts (those accepting cowbird eggs and regularly raising cowbird offspring), and to avoid species that are highly aggressive, likely to reject cowbird eggs (Hauber et al., 2002), or are unsuitable hosts because of their small size or high nest depredation rates (Brush, 2005).
1999), the snail species Physella virgata delays age and size at maturation (Sandland & Carmosini 2006), and the crustacean species Gammus minus distinguishes between conspecific and heterospecific
chemical cues (Wisenden et al.
Many marine molluscs, in contrast, secrete a combination of defense compounds or alarm pheromones respectively targeting heterospecific
predators and conspecifics at risk (Kicklighter et at., 2005; Derby et al., 2007; Derby and Aggio, 2011).
Caching also reduces the risk of detection by other seed predators (e.g., insects, granivorous birds, larger omnivorous vertebrates), as well as conspecific and heterospecific
pilferers (Janzen, 1971; Vander Wall, 1993; Forget et al., 1994; Wenny, 1999; Vander Wall et al., 2006a).
Mixed-species foraging aggregations and heterospecific
attraction in boreal bird communities.
(1994) proposed that a single mathematical model, including effects such as spacing of conspecific trees, heterospecific
fruiting trees, gaps, perching trees, or crop size, would explain a high percentage of the variance in seed density and would highlight the relative importance of each factor.