He called himself a Hicksite
Quaker, thus vaguely identifying himself with a democratic offshoot of the older Quaker church, a group with no meeting-house near their home.
Marietta, and Quakers in Conflict: The Hicksite
Reformation by H.
[Offers a "close reading of six snippets regarding Transcendentalism" published in the New York Aurora in 1842, arguing that Whitman did not write the piece on Emerson's lecture on "Poetry of the Times" (as has been generally assumed), but proposing that he well might have written the piece on Transcendentalism the following day, since it associates Transcendentalism with Hicksite
Quaker Perfectionism and Inner Light, rendering Transcendentalism as "the secularization of Quaker theology," endorsing Elias Hicks's "'radical' spiritual testimony" and his "'ultra' Perfectionist message: Brotherly Love could have an erotic side."]
No known Hicksites
or Guernyites were named on her quilt even though she had numerous Hicksite
relatives on the Stanton side of her family.
Power and most of the families in Oakland County were Orthodox Quakers, while those in neighboring Wayne County were of the Hicksite
Faulkner traces Mott's earliest forays into reform to the tensions surrounding the Society of Friends in America, which resulted in a schism during the 1820s that left Lucretia and James on the side of the radical Hicksite
"A Protest against Protestantism: Hicksite
Quakers and the Bible in the nineteenth Century".
The 1827 Quaker schism--usually described as resulting from the conflict between the followers of Elias Hicks, who emphasized the "inward light" in each individual, and Orthodox Quakers, who emphasized scriptural authority and atonement--is recast by Faulkner as also a conflict over "the character and authority of female ministers," with "women as crucial players." Mott sided with the Hicksites
, which sealed her conversion to antislavery and anti-authoritarian ideas--although these commitments soon led her to question the Hicksite
elders, and she became an outsider in her own sect.
pitted the Orthodox against the Hicksite
for the better part of the next
Orthodox Quakers were less supportive of women than the Hicksite
Quakers, frustrating Sarah's intention to be recognized as a minister.
Acknowledging Friends departing from their founders in the Orthodox/ Hicksite
split and in the shift to sermon-based churches through revivalism, she nevertheless sees Orthodox, revivalist, and evangelical holiness as the same as seventeenth-century Quaker origins in their heartfelt experiences, stress on perfection, and affirmation of orthodox beliefs in trinity and atonement.
Quaker founders of Swarthmore were interested in higher education but were also highly practical men and women with a strong belief in the desirability of astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics and engineering as part of that education.