The British, before the partition in 1947, viewed the community, often referred to as hijras
, as a menace to public decency and morality, attempting to criminalise their begging and even classifying the group as a 'criminal tribe' in 1871.
While the term "transgender" gained widespread usage in the West during the 1970s, in South Asia the term usually refers to a more specific, and older, group of individuals known as hijras
, some of whom prefer to be known by other designations such as khawaja sira.
, as a special community, are micromanaged or governed by a special mentor whom they call guru.
A study on problems of Hijras
in West Bengal based on neutrosophic cognitive maps.
They live and work under the command of senior Hijras
known as 'Gurus' whom they respect and follow (Nanda, 1990).
Despite this apparently sanctioned place in Indian culture, hijras
face severe harassment and discrimination from mainstream people in society (Chatterji 2008).
Denied the most basic of human rights, this analytical framework aims to provide an overview of the plight of India's hijras
and proposes greater access to health and education for India's longest lasting social outcasts in an attempt to help them out-caste the nation's social hierarchy
The concepts in the LGBTI acronym may not always pertain to the diversity of experiences and identities that sexual and gender nonconforming individuals live with or adopt, for example third gender hijras
or kothis in South Asia.
Attitude towards hijras
and their reciprocal perceptions (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation).
These include the dalits (the so-called 'untouchables') as well as cleaners, street children, female agricultural workers, hijras
(transgenders) and beggars as well as physically and mentally-challenged individuals.
Khan, "Correlates and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among Hijras
(male transgender) in Pakistan", International journal of STD and AIDS 19, no.
They served as the only authorities in direct contact with hijras
, assigned to teach the badu the basic tenets of Wahhabi doctrine.