These texts include the letter of Simeon of Bet Arsam, the Martyrium Arathae (via translation), and the Book of Himyarites
. The essay, however brief, provides a fascinating portrait of the complex, and ultimately hostile, relationship between the Jewish community of the region and competing Christian groups.
Constantius also banned the ships of any delegation to the Axumites or Himyarites
from docking in Alexandria (Cod.
The Syriac chronicle attributed to Dionysius of Tel-Mahre, written by a monk of Zuqnin in the late eighth century based on earlier historiographic sources, includes the following brief entry: "In 616 (305) the Himyarites
were led to the faith of the Christians by a captive woman." (117) In this section of the chronicle, the author claims to be drawing from Socrates' Ecclesiastical History.
Zafar has now emerged as the brilliant capital of the Himyarites
with a life span running from 115 BC to AD 525.
were a political dynasty that ruled Yemen from the second century b.c.e.
It is not clear how the Himyarites
, mentioned for example in Miller (1969:178) as one of the greatest of entrepot societies, are distinguished from the Nabateans, for they seem to have occupied a similar economic and territorial niche at an earlier time.
, a powerful tribe, gradually expanded their territory by defeating the inhabitants of neighboring entities (Sabea, Raidan, Hadramut, and Yamnat) to form a viable independent kingdom approximating in its boundaries to present-day Yemen.
It is thought more likely that the intricate system was built in the first millennium BC by the highland tribe known as the Himyarites
, whose kingdom rivalled that of the Sabaeans and whose power lasted until the arrival of the Persians.
Over the centuries, the Marib Dam was repaired and renovated, the dam was so important to the people who lived in the area that its maintenance continued even after the fall of the Sabaean Kingdom to the Himyarites
. The cause of the collapse is a matter of debate amongst scholars, some argue that it was an earthquake that destroyed the dam, whilst others blame it on exceptional rains, yet local legends claim it was large rats that caused the breach by biting and scratching at the dam's base.
The Chronicle of Pseudo-Dionysius of Tel-Mahre also makes a vague claim that a woman slave converted the Himyarites
c.305, noted in F.
486 inscription of the Himyarites
(see Bafiqih 1979; Robin 1986) as well as by Ibn Khordedebah in A.D.
Some writers say the name "humaini" was taken from the Himyarites
. In his book Humaini Poetry: Origins and Pioneers, Abduljabbar No'man wrote that the poetical form was named after a village called Al-Humaina between Taiz and Hodeida.