131) para a geracao de quantidades que representarao o continuo, como se vera a seguir, chamaremos de holons
, e em especial aos elementos geradores [q.sup.0.sub.1] e [q.sup.1.sub.0] chamaremos de holoreatores, em razao de seu papel de geracao dos demais holons
The name "Integral" thus conveys an approach with roots in German Idealism, Process Philosophy, and Arthur Koestler's theory of "holons
" (48), as well as one that seeks to incorporate and align such contemporary knowledge domains as evolutionary science and developmental psychology.
We modelled a work organization as a system of holons
that are characterized by agency and communion and have both interior and exterior aspects.
The developed system may distribute holonic controls over many nodes, and holons
are placed close to the equipment they direct.
A holonic manufacturing system is considered to be formed of many intelligent entities, named holons
. According to the principles stated by Koestler , the holon
represents both a behavior of a whole, which can be divided into subcomponents (holons
of inferior degree), and simultaneously a behavior of component, which is part of a bigger whole (holon
of superior degree).
The impression I want to give in the diagram is that institutional and societal issues (holons
) are subsumed influentially and yet are apart and/or can belong in part to other systems.
According to Koestler, a holon
is a self-similar structure that may consist of several holons
as sub-structures .
The developmental unfolding of consciousness is "holarchic," comprising a hierarchy of holons
(Wilber, 2000a, 2000b).
I am reminded that Arthur Koestler's chapter on holons
in The Ghost in the Machine (1967) presents a model of hierarchic order where wholes greater than the sums of their parts include social holons
: "Organisms and societies are multileveled hierarchies of semi-autonomous sub-wholes branching into sub-wholes of a lower order.
His conceptual framework is based on the theory of holons
, a term coined by Arthur Koestler to refer to individual units within a larger system in which there is reciprocal influence between the parts and the whole.
Wilber argues that in all fields of human knowledge the basic unit of analysis is something he calls the holon
. He credits Arthur Koestler for coining the term and uses Koestler's basic definition--a holon
is, "an entity that is itself a whole and simultaneously a part of some other whole." Holons
possess a number of characteristics which are described in both books.