Black circles indicate sinapomorfies for the generalized tracks: 14= Crotalus aquilus, 18= Crotalus ravus, 61= Storeira hidalgoensis, 75= Thamnophis sumichrasti, 31= Geophis mutitorques, 32=Geophis semidoliatus, 44= Micrurus tener, 55= Rhadinea gaigeae, 2= Agkistrodon taylori, 20= Crotalus totonacus, 42= Micrurus bernadi, 51= Pliocercus elapoides, 56= Rhadinaea marcellae, 57= Rhadinaea quinquelineata, 78= Chersodromus rubriventris 80= Geophis turbidus 81= Lampropeltis ruthveni, white circles indicate homoplasies
. Bootstrap values are shown below nodes.
Those authors studied recombinant MERS to investigate excessive homoplasies
, decay of linkage disequilibrium and the presence of alternative topologies, and their study showed that the MERS genome has well-supported alternative tree topologies and some degree of rate heterogeneity.
Because of the low number of homoplasies
expected (18), a neighbor-joining tree was obtained by using MEGA5 (23), with observed number of substitutions as a measure of genetic distance.
The Baileyans utilized these homoplasious characters even though it was recognized by, at the latest, the time of Darwin that homoplasies
are useless for the inference of relationships.
It has been shown that shell characters in gastropod phylogeny reconstructions are no more prone to homoplasies
than are other types of morphological characters (Schander & Sundberg 2001).
Morphological evolution, aptations, homoplasies
, constraints, and evolutionary trends: catfishes as a case study on general phylogeny and macroevolution.
(2003), the absence of biogeographical definition of areas of endemism may result from either low endemicity and/or the presence of geographical homoplasies
caused by local population extinction or dispersal.
By knowing which species are closely related to which other ones we can test hypotheses of morphological synapomorphies (homology) and homoplasies
. Developmental, genetic, and genomic data permit an even deeper analysis of characters, their similarities and their differences.
have arisen from common functional demands (by convergence or parallelism), then spatial or temporal variation in those demands could also select for similarities in the plastic expression of those traits (Hodin, 2000; Meinzer, 2003).
There are no homoplasies
in tarsal scopula evolution in the second cladogram.