The triumph of otium is won by retreat; a form of completion is represented by and experienced amid the enclosing fullness of the hortulan world.
In so reading the garden, he opposes the reclusive and occlusive hortulan world to the social, by implication the contemplative life to the active, and thus the productive to the sterile.
Within the mind within the garden, "all" is transformed, not least and by choice the very intellect at play upon the hortulan world and what lies beyond it.
Barnard, who - as might be expected - discusses the cult of improvement in Ireland; and John Dixon Hunt, the dean of garden historians, who has written about Hartlib's interest in "hortulan
affairs." Younger writers approaching the Hartlib circle in a variety of ways include both English and American scholars, such as Stephen Clucas, Kevin Dunn, Howard Hotson, Mark Jenner, Michael Leslie, William R.
, prunus hortulana (Ohio, Ill., Iowa, Mo., Okla.)