Thereafter, the therapeutic potential of penicillin went largely unexplored until 1940, when a team of researchers headed by Howard Florey
and Ernst Chain showed that it produced dramatic improvements in mice with streptococcal infections.
Nobel-winning pathologist Howard Florey
, who was involved in developing penicillin, held a chair in pathology there; it was there that the first patient to be given penicillin was treated, and it was there that Dorothy Hodgkin deciphered the three-dimensional structure of the penicillin molecule.
Meanwhile, Bryson explores the legacy of Benjamin Franklin, Dame Julia revisits Michael Faraday's work with electricity, and chief medical officer Dame Sally investigates the impact of Alexander Fleming and Howard Florey
's discovery of penicillin.
About nine years later, the article caught the attention of Howard Florey
, a professor of pathology at Oxford University.
It took two biochemists, Howard Florey
and Ernst Chain, and the pressure of World War II to turn the mold into a usable antibiotic.
Professor Timothy Walsh (Cardiff University, Wales) gave an excellent Howard Florey
oration, "UN Agenda on Antimicrobial Resistance: Dream or Scream?" In 2009, Prof Walsh and his team where the first to discover the New Delhi Metallo-[beta]-Lactamase (NDM) in India, and he is a leading researcher in this field.
(1) The older paper notes carried images of the Queen ($1); John Macarthur and William Farrer ($2); Sir Joseph Banks and Caroline Chisholm ($5); Francis Greenway and Henry Lawson ($10); Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith and Lawrence Hargreave ($20); Howard Florey
(Baron Florey) and Sir Ian Clunies Ross ($50); and Sir Douglas Mawson and John Tebbutt ($100).
Scot Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in London and only saw it mass-produced because of Howard Florey
and Ernst Chain in Oxford.
A 17-year-old from Bootle was accused of possession of a Class B drug; Joseph McKeever, 21, of Howard Florey
Way, Bootle, was charged with breach of crown court bail; Anthony Chadwick, 28, of The Marian Way, Bootle, was charged with drug possession; Terrance Stewart, 21 of Fleetwood Cottages, Bootle, was charged with drug possession.