These range from Frank Goodnow, the Columbia professor who fashioned a despotic constitution for Yuan Shikai, the Chinese general who wanted to become a new emperor in 1915, to Hu Shi
, one of the greatest of China's 20th century intellectuals, who like thousands of other young men and women studied in America and later became chancellor of Peking University before ending up in Taiwan in the 1950s.
Philosophers--including John Dewey-developed an enduring scholarly relationship with China as a country, and individually with Hu Shi
, a leading liberal intellectual from China who was also a Boxer Indemnity student.
There is particular focus on two important intellectuals of the period: Hu Shi
, the Beijing University professor who developed baihua, and his colleague Chen Duxiu, who cofounded the Chinese Communist Party.
Among the inherited trends they followed was their criticism of late Qing fiction which originated in "literary revolutionaries" such as Chen Duxiu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Hu Shi
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
's involvement in the New Culture Movement took a two-pronged approach.
In the last decade or so, there has been a backlash in China, not against Ibsen himself, but against members of the May Fourth (New Culture Movement) generation such as Hu Shi
Out of dissatisfaction with the ending of Pilgrimage to the West, Hu Shi
rewrote the eighty-first ordeal in the story of Tang Monk's pilgrimage for Buddhist scriptures.
Chang's personal journey has no doubt influenced his subject and his writing, for his childhood included visits by a number of major Chinese intellectuals, such as Hu Shi
, and Chang, himself, traveled to China during and after the Cultural Revolution.
Focusing on the writings of Liu Shipei, Zhang Taiyan, Hu Shi
, Liang Qichao, and Wang Guowei, Kurtz shows how after 1905, with the abolition of the imperial examinations, and after 1911, with the overthrow of the empire, through the efforts of several influential scholars, logic would suddenly become a Chinese tradition, found in the writings of Mohists, Daoists, and some other scholars who had originally been classified in the School of Names during the Warring States Period.
Chinese historian and philosopher Hu Shi
, through an article entitled "Women's Place in Chinese History" (1931), counts as one of the first critics of the Confucian tradition who raises this issue, but, at the same time, suggests that women have nevertheless managed to find themselves a very well defined place "within family, society and history," ruling over men and governing empires, contributing to the world of art and literature and educating their sons.