20) Huldrych Zwingli
, on the other hand, adopts the term "commemoration" to describe the signification of bread and wine, denying that the ritual effects any change whatsoever and seeing it as "the thanksgiving by which we express our joy.
It wasn't long before new churches began to be organized based on the doctrines of Luther and other reformers such as Huldrych Zwingli
(1484-1531), Jean Calvin (1509-1564) and many others.
The book is broadly chronological and highlights important moments in Luther's life: the posting of the Ninety-Five Theses, his "exile" to the Wartburg, his marriage, the debate with Huldrych Zwingli
at Marburg, and a series of other theological disputes with a variety of Catholic and Protestant enemies.
Throughout The Singing of the Strasbourg Protestants, Trocme-Latter shows how Strasbourg's reformers established their own practices, not following explicitly those of Martin Luther or of the Swiss Reformers Huldrych Zwingli
or Jean Calvin.
Yet Luther's movement diversified as the Bible and other Christian texts were printed in local languages, and soon became divided between Luther's followers and those of Huldrych Zwingli
and John Calvin in neighboring Switzerland.
This was particularly the case with the Reformed wing of the Reformation stemming from the Swiss Reformers Huldrych Zwingli
and Heinrich Bullinger in Zurich and John Calvin in Geneva.
While in Switzerland, Pipkin co-translated a two-volume collection of Huldrych Zwingli
's writings which had yet to appear in English and co-edited a scholarly compilation, Prophet, Pastor, Protestant: The Work of Huldrych Zwingli
After Five Hundred Years.
Born in the canton of Thurgau, he studied in Zurich and Basel before taking over from the key Reformation figure Huldrych Zwingli
(1484-1531) as lecturer on the Septuagint at the Schola Tigurina in 1532.
No-one in Wales seems to have been keen on the changes of the Reformation, but clerical families like Robert's would have heard about reformers like Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli
, who signalled their rejection of Rome by getting married.
Before the official inauguration of the new stained glass windows in Zurich's Grossmunster in October last year, comments were rife that it would be all too easy to associate the parish's connection to Huldrych Zwingli
with a fundamental hostility to images.
In 'The Body of Christ at Marburg, 1529', Wandel very effectively uses the debate between Martin Luther and Johannes Oecolampadius and Huldrych Zwingli
on the meaning of the New Testament text 'this is my body' to elucidate, not only the varying interpretations of the Eucharist by Lutherans and Swiss Reformers, but also their attitudes to religious art and idolatry.
Born in Zurich and inspired by the preaching of Huldrych Zwingli
, Reformed Christianity showed already in the 1520s traits that distinguished it from the Reformation of Martin Luther: a more austere form of worship service, stripped of all traditions that did not have explicit Biblical basis; a strict interpretation of what constituted graven images, resulting in the removal of all art work from churches; a simple eucharistic service which denied the physical presence of Christ in the bread and wine; and the creation of morals courts entrusted with the enforcement of Reformed morality.