Hyomandibular


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Hy`o`man`dib´u`lar


a.1.(Anat.) Pertaining both to the hyoidean arch and the mandible or lower jaw; as, the hyomandibular bone or cartilage, a segment of the hyoid arch which connects the lower jaw with the skull in fishes.
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However, mouthparts like the Meckel's, quadrate, hyoid and hyomandibular cartilages were evident (Ortiz-Galindo et al., 2000b).
Abbrevation Bones Cyprinidae Clupeidae Anguillidae Total ar Articular 11 3 14 boc Basioccipital 12 1 13 bpq Basipterygium 16 16 c Caudal vertebra 207 28 235 ceh Ceratohyal 10 1 11 cl Cleithrum 27 2 29 dn Dentary 19 2 21 eph Epihyal 16 16 fr Frontal 6 6 hb Head bone 38 4 42 (unidentified) hy Hyomandibular 13 13 iop Interopercle 10 10 mx Maxilla 7 2 9 op Opercle 21 1 1 23 pl Palatine 1 1 psp Parasphenoid 3 1 4 pha Pharyngeal bone 40 40 ptp Posttemporal 3 3 pc1 Precaudal 1 19 19 pc2 Precaudal 2 2 2 pc3 Precaudal 3 2 2 pc Precaudal 178 43 221 vertebra pmx Premaxilla 3 3 pu Preural vertebra 3 3 pop Preopercle 25 25 qd Quadrate 3 3 sop Subopercle 7 7 scl Supracleithrum 19 19 ur Urohyal 2 2 ver Vertebra 28 28 (unidentified) vo Vomer 2 2 Total 751 1 90 842
(SO; green) Supraorbital canal; (IO; red) Infraorbital canal; (HYO; blue) Hyomandibular canal; (LLP; pink) Posterior lateral line.
The orbital fissure can be observed ahead of the otic capsules, in dorsal position, and the hyomandibular branch of the facial nerve in ventral position.
If sacrifice of the hyomandibular constrictors is required, the protective tilting action of the larynx is lost and there may be a risk of aspiration.
The triangular-shaped opercle ossified completely and articulated with the hyomandibular at this stage.
Tricas and New (1998) found similar results when recording the neural discharge from the hyomandibular nerve in the round stingray, Urolophus hallen.
Identification: D II-VI (9-13), A II-IV 9-15, dorsal fin high and pointed, adipose fin present, pelvic fins with well developed axillary process, vertebrae 65-68, manubrium absent, with hook-shaped processes on the capitulum, anterior edge of hyomandibular round, only 19 to 26 gill rakers present on lower limb of first gill arch.
Many structures have been used to estimate the age of fishes, including scales, otoliths, vertebrae, fin rays and spines, opercular bones, cleithra, urohyal bone, and hyomandibular bone.
More than 30 different elements including articulated combinations were identified such as commonly used paired cranial bones (dentary, articular, quadrate, maxilla and premaxilla), and other useful, but not as often used, paired elements including, for example, cleithrum, opercular, post-temporal, hyomandibular and palatine.