750-51 and 757, takes the coupling of 'hypaspist' and 'one drachm per day' in IG [ii.sup.2], 329 to mean that the ordinary Macedonian foot-soldier got 1 drachm (6 obols), the 'ten stater' man received 8 obols, and the dimoirites earned 12 obols or 2 drachmas.
(18) For he reconstituted the court with seven Bodyguards (Somatophylakes), and an elite corps of Companions (Hetairoi), whose number rose to not fewer than 90, and possibly many more, under Alexander; and he restructured the army with squadrons of cavalry, styled the Companions (the term Hetairoi used here with a different definition), and territorially organised battalions of infantry, styled the Companion Infantry (Pezhetairoi), both cavalry and infantry including elite units, known respectively as the Agema and the Hypaspists.
(37) Then there is the problem whether, and if so how, the reform mentioned by Curtius affected the regular Companion Infantry, or concerned rather the three elite battalions of the Hypaspists. (38)
Despite the difficulty of accepting Curtius's account as it stands, it seems clear that in both the Companion Cavalry and the Companion Infantry, or at least with the Hypaspists, a new tier of command was introduced.
For example, 'Foot-Companions' was the name of a Bodyguard of Philip and also of the men of the Phalanx-Brigades from Lower Macedonia, and 'Hypaspists' was the name of Infantry-Guardsmen of Alexander and also of the men of three Hypaspist Phalanx-Brigades.
The Macedones of Lower Macedonia continued to use their traditional Macedonian dialect, and those of Upper Macedonia their traditional West-Greek dialect; brigades of the former in the phalanx were 'Foot-Companions' and of the latter 'Town-Companions'; and the King's personal Infantry Bodyguard was that of 'the Macedones', and his palace Infantry Guard that of the 'Hypaspists' (Arr.
3.11.9, including both hypaspists and brigades, as also in 5.12.2; 2.5.6, 3.23.8; Nepos, Eum.
The Hypaspists were 'Royal Hypaspists' (4.24.10) and 'Companions' of the king (1.14.2).
The Stageirite is clearly Alexander's agent, named in the extant papyrus of Hypereides as responsible for the promulgation of the Exiles' Decree; and the son of Parmenion is Alexander's hypaspist commander, who fell victim to illness in Parthyaea shortly before the downfall of his brother, Philotas (autumn 330).(20) However, Nicanor, son of Balacrus, is not mentioned elsewhere and has not intruded into the history of the period, except as a marginal note.(21) But he is clearly a figure of some importance and featured in the historical sources used by Harpocration.
18.72.8) he provided marines from his hypaspist corps (cf.
He appeared to be on the point of sailing from Attica, but at the moment of embarcation he contrived to have a letter delivered which invited him to Macedon to lead a movement against Polyperchon.(57) That gave him the pretext to decoy Nicanor into a nearby building for a private conference, and Nicanor was immediately arrested by the picked hypaspists whom Cassander had secreted there.
Personally brave, a skillful general, and a wily and cunning diplomat, Philip was one of the greatest military organizing geniuses in history; he developed siegecraft to a science, and the army his son Alexander led into Asia was largely his work, especially the pezetaeri (heavy infantry spearmen) and the hypaspists
(mobile heavy infantrymen); although he often demonstrated a fondness for sensual pleasure and drink, he also showed a genuine concern for the spread of Greek culture; he possessed the intellectual and organizational talents, plus energy, to gather many Greeks about him, and that helped civilize half-barbarous Macedon into a truly Grecian state.