Light treatment mitigates acne-causing factors in vitro: 640nm red light inhibits oleic acid-induced inflammation and hyperkeratinization
The pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial which includes abnormal sebum production, follicular hyperkeratinization
, bacterial proliferation and inflammation.2-4 The treatment goals are directed to reduce activity of the sebaceous glands, normalize follicular proliferation, reduce bacterial colonization and control inflammation.5,6 Owing to the use of topical and systemic antibiotics for acne vulgaris, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes is increasing worldwide.
The skin at the caudal aspect of the keel had hyperkeratinization
. The coelom was severely distended and firm on palpation, with a large region of patchy feather loss and erythema caudoventrally.
"The pathogenesis of acne is traditionally attributed to four pathogenic factors: hyperkeratinization
, excess sebum production, colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation.
It is suggested that smoking induces acne and HS by the induction of follicular hyperkeratinization
Comedones represent pilosebaceous ductal hyperkeratinization
that begins at the junction of the isthmus and the infundibulum [1, 2].
We now have evidence that inflammation appears even before follicular hyperkeratinization
. It is present in the very earliest of acne lesions, and it is still present in so-called postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and early scars.
Objective: Follicular hyperkeratinization
and Propionibacterium acnes colonization are mainly responsible for the pathogenesis of acne.
These signs include rounding of lid margins, notching of lid margins, vascularity of lid margins, lashes abnormity, hyperkeratinization
, hyperemia of lid margins, main duct number (central 1 cm), plugging of orifices, scarred obliteration of orifices, main duct dropout, properties of the secretion, tear film breakup time (BUT), tear film fragment, tear film foam, upper tear meniscus height, lower tear meniscus height, conjunctival congestion, conjunctivochalasis, and corneal fluorescein staining.
However, due to the variety of benign lesions, such as bite trauma, or hyperkeratinization
, less-obvious lesions may be difficult to distinguish as suspicious for oral cancer.
Histopathological examination of tumor growth revealed hyperkeratinization
surrounded by neoplastic squamous cells forming characteristic onion like eosinophilic keratin pearls (cell nests) surrounded by inflammatory cell infilteration (Fig.
It is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit, and the four major pathophysiological mechanisms are increased sebum production, follicular hyperkeratinization
, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation.