The recent literature suggests that Sema3A is expressed by prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes
during endochondral ossification which precedes neurovascular invasion .
In the proximity of the diaphysis the hypertrophic chondrocytes
(CH) enter into apoptosis, left an ECM scaffold for the bone tissue in formation (van der Eerden et al.).
Classic metaphyseal lesions are believed to consist of hypertrophic chondrocytes
which results from lack of blood supply due to injury and no subsequent resorption of terminal chondrocytes [20,21].
Notably, there were no apparent increases in the presence of hypertrophic chondrocytes
with large and round shapes in the IGF-1 transduced pellets as compared with the control pellets (Figure 3(b) upper lane).
MMP-9 (gelatinase B), similar to MMP-1, is most active during embryonic development, being essential to angiogenesis in the growth plate and apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes
in utero .
No staining was seen in hypertrophic chondrocytes
in control or diabetic rats.