excentricus is the ventrally displaced apical pore complex (APC) resulting in a relatively long suture between the second (2') and third (3') apical plate, and the hypotheca
has a narrow second antapical plate 2'''' (Fraga et al., 2011).
In the hypotheca
, there were five postcingular plates.
The cells are laterally compressed with a small, cap-like epitheca and a much larger hypotheca
. The sizes of the cells are large, anterioposteriorly elongated and asymmetrical with two posterior hypothecal projections; a longer ventral process and a shorter dorsal one.
Akashiwo sanguinea presents pleomorphic cells, which are generally pentagonal in shape, with conical epitheca and bilobed hypotheca
. The epitheca and hypotheca
are nearly equal in length with a large, spiral girdle that is displaced 0.2 times the length of the cell.
The abbreviations for cell measurements are as follows: Lb--body length measured from the furthest part of the epitheca to the antapex of the hypotheca
, not considering appendages or processes (lists or spines); Lt--total length measured from the furthest part of the epitheca or the anterior cingular list to the furthest part of the posterior or posterior-lateral processes or lists; Db--maximum cell body depth measured in its widest part in lateral view, not considering the sulcal or cingular lists; Dt--total depth, considering the sulcal and/or cingular lists.
(169) Furthermore, security interests such as pledge (pignus) and mortgage (hypotheca
) are discussed under the heading of obligation, (170) not property.
3-hecate dinoflagellate taxa are primarily defined by the number and arrangement ofplates in the epitheca, hypotheca
, sulcus and cingulum, the latter three considered more conservative (Balech 1980).
Unlike the Germans, the Romans had liberalized their secured transactions law considerably and allowed for non-possessory security interests in the form of a hypotheca
(as opposed to a possessory pledge, known as a pignus).
Si quis autem contra huius nostrae prohibitionis seriem de bonis et rebus eisdem quicquam alienare praesumpserit: alienatio, hypotheca
, concessio, locatio, conductio, et infeudatio huiusmodi, nullius omnino sint roboris vel momenti, et tam qui alienat, quam is, qui alienatas res et bona praedicta receperit, sententiam excommunicationis incurrat.
Robertson in their book Residential Mortgage Lending, the Romans are believed to have introduced the concept of "fiducia" (an actual transfer of possession and title to land subject to a re-conveyance when a specific obligation was fulfilled) and "hypotheca
" (a pledge, similar to today's lien, where the borrower retained title and possession until an actual default).